The Kānvar Yatrā or Kavad Yatra (Devanagari: काँवर यात्रा or कांवड़ यात्रा) is annual pilgrimage of devotees of Shiva, known as Kānvarias, to Hindu pilgrimage places of Haridwar, Gaumukh and Gangotri in Uttarakhand and Sultanganj in Bihar to fetch holy waters of Ganges River, Ganga Jal, which is later offered at their local Shiva temples. Ganga Jal taken from Sultanganj is poured on Baba Baidyanath at Devghar by Kanwariyas. The Yatra takes place during the sacred month of Shravan (Saawan) (July -August), according to the Hindu calendar. The Kanwar Yatra is performed by Shiva Devotees called Kanwariyas from Sultanganj to Devghar round the year. Earlier this yatra was performed in the month of Bhado, from 1960 the mela started from the month of Shavan and exted up to Dashara. Now round the year Kanwariyas take Ganga Jal from Sultangaj and travel a distance of 100 km bare footed and reach Devghar in Jharkhand. During the Basant Panchmi, Maha Shivratri and other important Hindu occasions, the number of Kanwariyas increase many fold. During a calendar year approx. 2 Crores Kanwariyas perform this holy journey.
The Yatra used to be a small affair undertaken by a few saints and older devotees until the 1990s, when it started gaining popularity. Today, hundreds of thousands of devotees from surrounding states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Bihar and some from Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh reach these places to participate in Kanwar Mela. In 2003, 75.5 million pilgrims reached Haridwar, with traffic growing each year. Heavy security measures are undertaken by the government and the traffic on Delhi-Haridwar national highway (National Highway 58) is diverted for the period.
Kanwar Yatra is named after the kānvar (काँवर), a single pole (usually made of bamboo) with two roughly equal loads fastened or dangling from opposite ends. The kānvar is carried by balancing the middle of the pole on one or both shoulders. The Hindi word kānvar is derived from the Sanskrit kānvānrathi (काँवाँरथी). Kānvar-carrying pilgrims, called Kānvariās, carry covered water-pots in kānvars slung across their shoulders. This practice of carrying Kavad as a part of religious pilgrimage, especially by devotees of Lord Shiva, is widely followed throughout India (see Kavadi). Yatra means a journey or procession.
Kanwar yatra is related to the churning of the ocean of milk in the Hindu Puranas. When the poison came out before Amrita and the world started burning from its heat then lord Shiva accepted to inhale poison. But, after inhaling it he started suffering from negative energy of poison. In Treta Yuga Lord Shiva's devout follower Ravana did meditation. He brought holy water of Ganga by using kanwar and poured it on Lord Shivas temple in Puramahadev. Thus releasing Lord Shiva from the negative energy of the poison.
The festivals run during the monsoon month Shraawan (July–August). After taking water from the Ganges river (or other nearby river that wind up in the Ganges) the pilgrims, known as kanwariya or Shiv Bhaktas (disciples of Shiva), are mandated to travel barefooted and in saffron robes with their Kanwar (walking sticks used to hang the urns of water) for 105 km by various routes and usually in groups made of family, friends and or neighbors, and return to their own local or other more prestigious and larger Shiva Temples to pour Gangajal on Lord Shiva (Shiv Linga). On the march pilgrims continuously sprinkle any and all talk with "Bol Bam" (speak the name of Bam) and sing Bhajans (hymns) to praise his name.
To help kanwariyas so many NGOs are there and they offer free sewa (service) like medical help, water, tea, breakfast, lunch etc. in the journey route. Most of the NGOs work only in the Month of Shavan but Bol Bum Sewa Samitti, Dalsingsarai, which is a 38 years old NGO having its huge Dharamshala (Approx. 3,600 Sq. Feet) at Tonapathar, Abrakha, Dist. Banka in the holy route of Sultanganj to Devghar works round the year round the clock. Bol Bum Sewa Samitti having approx. 10,000 members from different parts of India contribute generously and offer free sewa without any help from Govt. The Donations made to this Samitti is exempted from the Income Tax Department. Samitti have a face book page at www.facebook.com/bolbumsewasamitti. Beside the Free Sewa to Kanwariyas Samitti also provide free education, Medical facilities to needy people.
The month of Shravan is dedicated to Lord Shiva and most devotees observe a fast on Mondays during the month, as it also falls during the chaturmas period, traditionally set aside for religious pilgrimages, bathing in holy rivers and penance. During the annual Monsoon season thousands of saffron-clad pilgrims carrying water from the Ganges in Haridwar, Gangotri or Gaumukh, the glacier from where the Ganges originates and other holy places on the Ganges, like Sultanganj, the only place where the river turns north during its course, and return to their hometowns, where they later perform abhisheka (anointing) the Shivalingas at the local Shiva temples, as a gesture of thanksgiving.
While most pilgrims are men, a few women also participate in Yatra. Most travel the distance on foot, a few also travel on bicycles, motor cycles, scooters, mini trucks or jeeps. Numerous Hindu organizations and other voluntary organizations like local Kanwar Sanghs, the Rashtryia Swayam Sewak Sangh and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. setup camps along the National Highways during the Yatra, where food, shelter, medical-aid and stand to hang the Kanvads, holding the Ganges water is provided.
Smaller pilgrimages are also undertaken to places like Allahabad and Varanasi. Shravani Mela is a major festival at Deoghar in Jharkhand, where thousands of saffron-clad pilgrims bringing holy water, from the Ganges at Sultanganj, covering a distance of 105 kilometres on foot. Here till about 1960, the yatra was confined to a few saints, old devotees, and rich Marwaris of neighbouring cities, and the phenomenon has seen considerable rise in the recent years.
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Snippet: ... काँवर, स्त्री० [सं० काँवाँरथी से] एक विशेष प्रकार की बहँगी जिसमें बाँस के टुकड़े के दोनों सिरों पर पिटारियाँ बँधी रहती हैं ... kānvar, fem. [from Sanskrit kānvānrathi] a special type of scales-like structure in which containers are fastened to opposite ends of a bamboo staff ...
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- Choudhary, p. 29