Kapiti Line

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     Kapiti Line
Overview
Type commuter rail
System Metlink
Status Open, passenger and freight
Locale Wellington region, New Zealand
Termini Wellington
Waikanae
Stations 16
Ridership 4,461,000 per annum (2011–12)[1]
Operation
Owner KiwiRail Network (platforms and track); Greater Wellington Regional Council (trains and station buildings)
Operator(s) Tranz Metro
Character Suburban
Rolling stock EM/ET EMUs
FP/FT class EMUs
Technical
Track gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
Electrification 1500V DC overhead
Route map
NIMT (Wellington - Manawatu Line)
Waikanae
48.3km / 0:55hr[2] Paraparaumu
Raumati (proposed)
State Highway 1 ("Mackays Crossing")
38.8 / 0:46 Paekakariki
State Highway 1
Tunnels 3 - 7
31.2 / 0:37 MuriClosed 30 April 2011
30.4 / 0:35 Pukerua Bay
State Highway 1
24.5 / 0:30 Plimmerton
23.2 / 0:26 Mana
Pauatahanui inlet
21.9 / 0:24 Paremata
17.7 / 0:21 Porirua
16.2 / 0:18 Kenepuru
14.9 / 0:16 Linden
13.8 / 0:15 Tawa
13.1 / 0:13 Redwood
To Johnsonville Line (closed 1938)
11.9 / 0:11 Takapu Road
Tunnel 2
State Highway 1
Tunnel 1
Hutt Valley Line (Wairarapa Line)
2.6 / 0:03 Kaiwharawhara
Interislander Ferry Terminal
State Highway 1
Wellington freight terminal
Johnsonville Line
0.0km / 0:00hr Wellington

Metlink's Kapiti Line[3][4] is the electrified southern portion of the North Island Main Trunk Railway between New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, and Waikanae on the Kapiti Coast, operated by Tranz Metro on behalf of Greater Wellington Regional Council.[3] Trains run frequently every day, with stops at 16 stations. Until 2011 it was known as the Paraparaumu Line.

Construction[edit]

The Kapiti Line was constructed by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company as part of its line between Wellington and Longburn, south of Palmerston North. It was built by a group of Wellington businessmen frustrated with the indecision of the government about the construction of a west coast route out of Wellington.[5] Construction of the line began in September 1882 and followed a circuitous, steep route via Johnsonville. It was opened to Plimmerton in October 1885, and on 3 November 1886 the line was finished, with the final spike driven just north of Paraparaumu, at Otaihanga.[6]

On 7 December 1908 the government acquired the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company, and incorporated it into its national network as the southern portion of the North Island Main Trunk line.

Deviation and electrification[edit]

In 1928, work began on a deviation to avoid the difficult Johnsonville section of the line. This deviation had two significant tunnels between Kaiwharawhara and Tawa. It opened to freight on 24 July 1935 and to passengers on 19 June 1937. The Johnsonville section was retained as the Johnsonville Line.[7]

The line from Wellington to Paekakariki was electrified from 24 July 1940,[8] primarily to avoid smoke nuisance in the new deviation's lengthy second tunnel, and to provide extra tractive effort on the Paekakariki Hill between Pukerua Bay and Paekakariki. Paekakariki was thus established as a major station where trains swapped from steam (later diesel) to electric motive power, and it was the northern terminus of the commuter line for many years. Electrification was extended to Paraparaumu on 7 May 1983.[2]

Double track from Porirua to Mana was opened on 7 November 1960, with the line no longer following the curves of the shoreline bays north of Porirua. A new station and bridge at Paremata were required.[9]

Operation[edit]

From electrification until the 1980s, the majority of commuter services on the line were operated by DM/D electric multiple units, with some carriage trains hauled by ED and EW electric locomotives, particularly at peak periods. ED and EW locomotives also hauled freight trains over this section until the tunnels between Pukerua Bay and Paekakariki were lowered in 1967 and DA diesel locomotives could be used into Wellington.

From 1982 the new EM/ET electric multiple units were delivered. They had been ordered to replace the wooden carriage trains hauled by electric locomotives on commuter services and largely displaced the DM/D units on the Paraparaumu Line.

By the 1980s, the ED and EW electric locomotives were not required for either freight trains or for commuter trains. They were retired due to age and lack of use, the EDs by 1981 and the EWs by 1988. From 2010 the introduction of the Matangi EMUs provided extra passenger capacity, and enabled the remaining DM/D EMUs to be withdrawn in 2012.

A proposal to extend the electrification to Waikanae was approved by the Greater Wellington Regional Council on 8 May 2007. This project included the double tracking of the single track line between MacKays Crossing (between Paekakariki and Paraparaumu) as far as the rail underbridge and river bridge south of Waikanae. The $90 million project started in December 2008, and was completed in 2011, with the first commuter trains to Waikanae on 20 February.[4] Completion of the project was delayed to 2011 to minimise commuter disruption by working in the quiet end-of-year holiday period, according to ONTRACK program director David Gordon. The project involved 50 workers and 20 machines installing 600 traction poles in eight or nine metre deep holes, and laying 30 km of rail and 30,000 sleepers. The project allows commuter services from Waikanae every 15 minutes.[10] The new Matangi electric multiple units will be used on the Kapiti Line from mid-2011.[3] Paraparaumu and Waikanae stations were upgraded at a cost of more than $1 million each. Upgrading Waikanae station rather than moving it south of Elizabeth Street or providing a road underpass has been criticised locally, as frequent closing of the Elizabeth Street level crossing south of the station may increase traffic congestion in Waikanae.[11]

Ten traction substations along the line take electricity from Wellington Electricity or Electra's 11,000-volt distribution network and transform and rectify it to 1500-volt direct current for the overhead traction lines. The substations are located at Wellington, Kaiwharawhara, Glenside, Paremata, Mana, Pukerua Bay, Paekakariki, Raumati, Lindale and Waikanae. Also along the line are two "cross-tie" substations at Ngauranga and Tawa, which provide a switching function but don't have transformers or rectifiers.

The future[edit]

The Kapiti Line (2007, before electrification), looking south from the Otaihanga Road level crossing. On the right is the location of a former halt; on the left is the Southward Car Museum.

Proposals for new stations at Raumati, between MacKays Crossing and Paraparaumu, and Lindale, north of Paraparaumu near Otaihanga, are on hold, to be reconsidered after 2010, as it was claimed that there were problems affecting a station at Raumati (the provision of access to SH 1 and park-and-ride facilities) and an unstable hillside behind the line.[12][13][14]

Further extension of the electrification 15 km north from Waikanae to Otaki remains a possibility. A group known as "Save Kapiti" is actively campaigning for the extension.[15] The Otaki Community Board also supports the extension of electrification.[16] Provision has been made during road earthworks north of Waikanae for a future crossing loop between Peka Peka and Otaki.[17] In 2012 the Greater Wellington Regional Council investigated extension of the electrification with Matangi trains north of Waikanae to Otaki (estimated cost $30 million for the Otaki project) and north of Upper Hutt to a new station at Timberlea.[18]

The section between Pukerua Bay and Paekakariki may also be double tracked or replaced by a less steep deviation during the first half of the 21st century, although the present proposal is to daylight only the northernmost (No. 7) tunnel which is through rock, and have double track north from there.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wellington Metropolitan Rail 2011/12 Annual Report". Greater Wellington Regional Council. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2013. 
  2. ^ a b New Zealand Railway and Tramway Atlas, fourth edition, edited by John Yonge (Essex: Quail Map Company, 1993), 15-16.
  3. ^ a b c "Metlink - Kapiti Line". Greater Wellington Regional Council. 
  4. ^ a b "Metlink, January 2011". January 2011. 
  5. ^ Geoffrey B. Churchman and Tony Hurst, The Railways of New Zealand: A Journey Through History (Auckland: HarperCollins, 1991), 164.
  6. ^ Churchman and Hurst, The Railways of New Zealand, 165.
  7. ^ Churchman and Hurst, The Railways of New Zealand, 168.
  8. ^ Bruce Murray and David Parsons: Rails through the Valley: The story of the construction and use of the railway lines through Tawa (2008, Tawa Historical Society) ISBN 978-0-473-14410-4
  9. ^ Hoy, D.G. Rails out of the Capital (NZRLS, 1970) pp. 70,71
  10. ^ Kapiti Observer 18 January 2010 pp8,9
  11. ^ Kapiti Observer 7 December 2009 page 3
  12. ^ The Dominion Post, 15 April 2008, page A5 "Railway station plans go on hold"
  13. ^ metlink wellington bus, train, ferry public transport timetables: Metlink News - Issue 5, April 2008
  14. ^ Greater Wellington - Kapiti Coast railway upgrade details revealed
  15. ^ "Protests dominate rail opening". More FM Horowhenua. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  16. ^ "Is Rail the Answer? And if so what is the Question?". Ann Chapman. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  17. ^ Kapiti Observer 18 January 2010 page 7
  18. ^ Forbes, Michael (24 November 2012). "Electric extension for trains". The Dominion Post (Wellington). p. A2. 
  19. ^ Terry McDavitt, et al., Proposed Western Corridor Plan: Hearing Subcommittee's Report (Greater Wellington Regional Council, 8 March 2006), 51-4.

External links[edit]