Kapurthala

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This article is about the municipality in Punjab, India. For its namesake district, see Kapurthala district.
Kapurthala
ਕਪੂਰਥਲਾ
city
Jagatjit Club, Kapurthala
Jagatjit Club, Kapurthala
Punjab
Kapurthala
Kapurthala
Location in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 31°23′N 75°23′E / 31.38°N 75.38°E / 31.38; 75.38Coordinates: 31°23′N 75°23′E / 31.38°N 75.38°E / 31.38; 75.38
Country  India
State Punjab
District Kapurthala
Founded by Rana Kapur
Area
 • Total 909.09 km2 (351.00 sq mi)
Elevation 225 m (738 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 101,654
 • Density 110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 144 601
Telephone code 01822
Vehicle registration PB 09

Kapurthala (Punjabi: ਕਪੂਰਥਲਾ) is a city in Punjab state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Kapurthala District. It was the capital of the Kapurthala State, a princely state in British India. The secular and aesthetic mix of the city with its prominent buildings based on French and Indo-Saracenic architecture self-narrate its princely past. It is also known as city of Palaces & Gardens.

Kapurthala Principality[edit]

Kapurthala Principality was in the Punjab ruled by the Ahluwalia dynasty, which is commonly known as the "Walia dynasty" in urban areas and had an area of 652 square miles (1,690 km2). The 1901 population was 314,341, showing an increase of 5% over the previous decade. At the time, estimated gross revenue was Rs178,000-year.[1]

History[edit]

Main article: Kapurthala State
Princely flag of Kapurthala

The history of the Town of Kapurthala goes back as early as the 11th Century when it is said to have been founded by Rana Kapur, a Bhatti Rajput who was scion of the ruling house of Jaisalmer (Rajasthan). The present royal family of Kapurthala is descended from Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, a contemporary of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah, who by his intelligence and bravery made himself the leading Sikh of his day.[2][3]

At one time it held possessions on both sides of the Sutlej, and also in the Bari Doab. The cis-Sutlej estates and scattered tracts in the Bari Doab were forfeited owing to the hostility of the chief in the First Sikh War; but the latter were afterwards restored in recognition of the loyalty of Raja Randhir Singh during the mutiny of 1857, when he led a contingent to Oudh which did good service. He also received a grant of land in Oudh, 700 m² in extent, yielding a gross rental of 89,000. In Oudh, however, he exercises no sovereign powers, occupying only the status of a large landholder, with the title of Raja-i-Rajagan.[4]

Raja Sir Jagatjit Singh, K.C.S.I., was born in 1872, succeeded his father in 1877, and attained his majority in 1890. During the Tirah expedition of 1897-98 the Kapurthala imperial service infantry took a prominent part. The territory is crossed by the railway from Jalandhar to Amritsar. The state has a large export trade in wheat, sugar, and cotton. The hand-painted cloths and metal-work of Phagwara are well known.

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Kapurthala had a population of 101,854, out of which males were 55,485 and females were 46,169. The literacy rate was 85.82 per cent.[5]

As of 2001 India census,[6] Kapurthala had a population of 84,361. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Kapurthala has an average literacy rate of 65%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 62%. In Kapurthala, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Monuments & Buildings[edit]

Sainik School, Kapurthala

The City of Kapurthala has several buildings and places of interest linked to its local history such as the Sainik School (Formerly Jagatjit Palace), Shalamar Bagh (Gardens), District Courts buildings, Moorish Mosque, Panch Mandir ("Five Temples"), Clock Tower, State Gurudwara, Kanjli Wetlands, Guru Nanak Sports Stadium, Jagjit Club, and the NJSA Government college

Sainik School (Jagatjit Palace)[edit]

The much renowned Sainik School, formerly known as Jagatjit Palace, is housed in what was formerly the palace of the erstwhile Maharajah of Kapurthala state, HRH Maharajah Jagatjit Singh. The palace building has a spectacular architecture based on the Palace of Versailles and Fontainebleau[citation needed] spread over a total area of 200 acres (0.81 km2). It was designed by a French architect M. Marcel and built by a local builder Allah Ditta. Its magnificent Durbar Hall (Diwan-E-Khas) is one of the finest in India and the Plaster of Paris figures and painted ceilings represent the finest features of French art and architecture. The construction of this palace was commenced in 1900 and completed in 1908 in time for the new wife of the Maharajah Anita Delgado.

Elysee Palace[edit]

The Elysee Palace was built by Kanwar Bikrama Singh in 1862. This magnificent building with its imposing and elegant facade has now been converted into MGN School of Kapurthala.

Moorish Mosque[edit]

A spectacular example of the secular history of Kapurthala is the Moorish Mosque, a famous replica of the Grand Mosque of Marakesh, Morocco, was built by a French architect, Monsieur M Manteaux. Its construction was commissioned by the last ruler of Kapurthala, Maharajah Jagatjit Singh and took 13 years to complete between 1917 and 1930. It was then consecrated in the presence of the late Nawab of Bhawalpur. The Mosque's inner dome contains decorations by the artists of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. The Mosque is a National Monument under the Archeological Survey of India. It was one of the monumental creations in the State during the premiership of late Diwan Sir Abdul Hamid Kt., CIE, OBE. It was his keen interest with Maharaja's blessings that the mosque was completed. Its wooden model lay at the entrance of the Lahore Museum.

Jagatjit Club[edit]

Jagatjit Club is an elegant building situated in the heart of the city based on the Greek Revival style of architecture. Its design loosely resembles the Acropolis of Athens and features the Coat of Arms of the erstwhile ruling family of Kapurthala with their royal motto "Pro Rege et Patria" (For King and country) on its pediment. The building has been used for a variety of purposes since it was constructed, it was used as a church in the early nineteenth century, as a cinema hall in the 1940s and now houses a local club.

Shalimar Gardens[edit]

Shalimar Gardens are situated in roughly the centre of the city and provide an escape from the hustle-bustle of the city. The Shahi Samadhs (The Royal Cenotaphs) in the Shalimar Gardens emphasise the traditions of its ruling Dynasty. Marble obelisks inside the red sandstone Chambers, are Memorials to the former Rulers and their families. Nearby, a grand structure built in 1880 and built on a marble plinth, houses the Samadhs of Maharajas Kharak Singh, Jagatjit Singh and Paramjit Singh.

Panch Mandir (Five Temples)[edit]

Panch Mandir of Kapurthala is a place of reverence for all faiths. The temple complex has a spectacular construction and is home to five small temples. Built during the reign of Sardar Fateh Singh, an extraordinary feature of this temple is that from the entry door, one can view all the five idols and pay obeisance to all.

The State Gurdwara[edit]

The large and imposing red sandstone building (now painted white) of the State Gurudwara was consecrated in 1915. Built in the Indo- Saracenic style, it has vast expanses of marble haloed by the feet of the hundreds of devotees.

Gurudwara Ber Sahib[edit]

The famous Gurdwara Ber Sahib is situated at Sultanpur Lodhi, which is one of the four sub-divisions (Tehsil) of Kapurthala. This historic site is of great importance to Sikhism as it is said to be the very place where the First Guru of Sikhs, Guru Nanak, spent 14 years of his life and attained enlightenment whilst bathing in a small rivulet, the Bein. The place derives its name from a Ber tree (Zizyphus Jujuba) said to be planted by Guru Nanak himself and under which he first uttered the Mool Mantra or the "Sacred Word or Revelation" of Sikhism.

Kanjli Wetlands[edit]

Kanjli Wetlands, on the western Bein rivulet at the outskirts of the city, has been included in under the Ramsar Convention. It is a very popular site for bird watching and boating. An enormous project is currently being undertaken here to develop it into a destination for bird watching replete with modern day facilities. Sadly the Kanjli Wetlands have been in a state of neglect lately with little attention being given by the authorities to the condition of flora and fauna and its surrounding infrastructure.

Education[edit]

The main higher education institutions of Kapurthala are -

  • College of Engineering and Management
  • NJSA Government College, established in 1856, popularly known as Randhir College, after its founder Randhir Singh of Kapurthala[7]
  • Anand College of Engineering and Management(ACEM)
  • Hindu Kanya College for women
  • College of Engineering and Management(CEM)
  • Bebe Nanki G.N.D.U college Mithra....

There are numerous primary and secondary schools in Kapurthala, notably -

  • Sainik School
  • Govt. Girls Sr. Sec. School Kapurthala(Ghanta Ghar School)
  • MGN Public School
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Kapurthala Cantt
  • J.K. Public Senior Secondary School (started by local personality Jhanda Mal Sharma)
  • Anand Public Senior Secondary School
  • Prita Lee Lesson Senior Secondary School
  • Kapurthala Public High School
  • Bawa Lalvani Public School
  • Little Angels Co-Ed School
  • MDSD Sr Sec School
  • KR jain DAV Public School
  • Ranhair School
  • Christ King Convent School, the only ICSE pattern based convent school in the city
  • Dhilwan International Public School(DIPS)

Transport[edit]

The City of Kapurthala is well connected with the main transport routes of the Punjab and Northern India. It is situated 19 km away toward South-West of its closest neighbouring city of Jalandhar, a main road and railway junction of the Punjab region. Nearest international Airport is approximately 66 Kilometers away at Amritsar.

Industries[edit]

Kapurthala is home to several medium-to-large scale industries. Some of these are the Rail Coach Factory (see below); JCT Mills Phagwara (a sub-division of Kapurthala district) which is one of the most successful textile mills in India; SSK, one of India's oldest and biggest manufacturers of Electrical wiring accessories, founded in 1935, is also based in Kapurthala. Other prominent industries include the Oswal Agro (Sugar) Mills and the Jagatjit Industries Limited (JIL), the latter being set up under the patronage of Maharajah of Kapurthala in 1944 and remains one of the largest alcoholic beverage breweries of and manufacturer of dairy products in India.

Rehman Automobile and Works was also established here in 1935 and later moved to Lahore, Pakistan in 1947.

Apart from the heavy engineering and ancillary units coming up in the city to carter the needs of Rail Coach Factory, Agro processing industries have been in the city from the 1950s, these mainly consist of oil extraction from oil seeds like sunflower, mustard, cotton seed and rice bran. There are maximum number of Rice Mills in Kapurthala city due to its proximity to huge surrounding fertile agriculture fields.

Kapurthala is now a prominent market in Punjab for buying rice paddy both Basmati & non-Basmati rice along with it the city is a big market for rice - sela rice, parboiled rice, raw rice in both varieties of Basmati and non-Basmati rice.

Multinational companies have finally found this city and the quality and quantity of rice they can get from this district and therefore all big players have started to enter this city of royals, this process has increased the hopes of farmers and traders of the city of getting good bargains for their products and it has also educated the people how to make export quality rice and by products so this city is going to be hot property in the rice trade in coming times.

Rail Coach Factory[edit]

Kapurthala boasts of having one of the most innovative large scale hi-tech manufacturing units dedicated for production of railway carriages for Indian Railways. Popularly known as RCF, the Rail Coach Factory was established in 1986 by the Government of India and has been important to the district's economy. RCF is located in a serene and green environment and is ISO 14001 certified.

Villages in Kapurthala District[edit]

Here is detailed link for villages in Kapurthala district.

  • Amar Kot
  • Bopa Rai, Babeli, Bhawanipur, Begowal, Βalerkhanpur, (Butala), Bagrian, Bhano langa, Bhandal Bet, Boot, Bamuwal
  • Fatudhinga
  • Ghugh Bet(Ghug)
  • Hamira, Hambowal
  • Ibban


  • Lakhpur, Lakhan Ke Padde, Lakhan Kalan(Wadda lakhan), Lakhan Khurad
  • Meani bet, Murar, Mushakved, Mustafabad, Muddowal, Mainwan
  • Narur, Nanakpur, Nadala, Nathu Chahal, Nurpur Januhan, Nurpur Jattan, Nurpur Lubana, Nurpur Dona
  • Ranipur, Rampur Sunra, Ramidi
  • Tibba,Todarwal, Tandi, Talwandi Choudherian, Tarkhanawala
  • Ucha bet

In culture and films[edit]

  • The film 'Tanu weds Manu' had some scenes shot in Kapurthala city of Punjab.
  • Kapurthala gives its name to the Kapurthala stomacher, a wedding gift from the Maharajah to Mary of Teck, the future Queen Mary, in 1893.[8]
  • In the 2010 Pakistani drama Dastaan that takes place during the Partition of India, Kapurthala serves as the place where Bano, the main Muslim female character, is kept for nearly 5 years by a Sikh family.

Literature[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kapurthala state The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 14, p. 408.
  2. ^ [Genealogy and History of Kapurthala (princely state)] Queensland University.
  3. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
  4. ^ Relating to the Awadh Estates of Kanwar Bikrama Singh of Kapurthala, 1883 wikisource
  5. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  6. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  7. ^ "College of excellence, 150 years ago". The Tribune. 1 October 2006. 
  8. ^ Royal Collection http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/microsites/royalwedding1947/object.asp?grouping=&exhibs=NONE&object=200188&row=17&detail=about

External links[edit]