|Princely State of British India|
|Historical era||New Imperialism|
|-||Independence of India||1947|
|-||1901||352 km2 (136 sq mi)|
|Density||893 /km2 (2,312.9 /sq mi)|
|Kapurthala state The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 14, p. 408–416.|
According to the 1901 census the state had a population of 314,341 and contained two towns and 167 villages.
The state was ruled by the Ahluwalia dynasty, founded in 1772 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (1718–1783), a prominent Sikh leader during the Sikh Confederacy, and also Misldar of the Ahluwalia army. He was born in village Ahlu or Ahluwal near Lahore, giving rise to the name of the family, Ahluwalia or one from Ahlu.
Badar Singh, the great-grandson of Sada Singh, married the daughter of a petty sardar of the district. Their son Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was born in 1718. Jassa Singh was barely five years old when his father died in 1723. Subsequently his mother requested Mata Sundri, the widow of Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh to take care of young Jassa.
Upon growing up, she put him under the care of Sikh leader Nawab Kapur Singh. Jassa Singh soon rose in ranks and, on the eve of his death, Kapur Singh appointed him his successor in 1753. And after the capture of Lahore in 1761, Khalsa honored him with the title of Sultan-ul-Qaum (King of the whole people). He was the first one to take on the surname Ahluwalia (or Walia nowadays) and his followers use the surname Walia or Ahluwalia. He founded the state of Kapurthala in 1772, and his descendants remained powerful chiefs in Punjab until the rise of Ranjit Singh (1780–1839).
Jassa Singh had no male heir (two daughters) and, upon his death in 1783, he was cremated at Burj Baba Atal Sahib; he was succeeded by his cousin, Bhag Singh.
- Jassa Singh (1777 - 20 Oct 1783) (b. 1718 – d. 1783)
- Bagh Singh (20 Oct 1783 - 1801) (b. 1747 – d. 1801)
- Fateh Singh (1801 - 20 Oct 1837) (b. 1784 – d. 1837)
- Nihal Singh (20 Oct 1837 - 13 Sep 1852) (b. 1817 – d. 1852)
- Randhir Singh (13 Sep 1852 - 12 Mar 1861) (b. 1831 – d. 1870)
- Randhir Singh (12 Mar 1861 - 2 Apr 1870) (b. 1831 – d. 1870)
- Kharrak Singh (2 Apr 1870 - 3 Sep 1877) (b. 1850 – d. 1877)
- Jagatjit Singh (3 Sep 1877 - 12 Dec 1911) (b. 1872 – d. 1949)
- Jagatjit Singh (12 Dec 1911 - 15 Aug 1947) (b. 1872 – d. 1949)
In 1930, Kapurthala became part of the Punjab States Agency and acceded to Union of India in 1947.