Karambit

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Kerambit
Kerambit knife and sheath.JPG
A traditional kerambit
Type Concealed blade
Place of origin Indonesia
Specifications
Blade type Single or double edged, crescent curve
Hilt type Water buffalo horn, wooden, ivory
Scabbard/sheath Water buffalo horn, wooden

The kerambit or karambit (Minangkabau language: kurambik or karambiak) is a small Southeast Asian hand-held, curved knife resembling a claw. Known as kerambit in its native Indonesian and Malay, it is called karambit in the Philippines.

Origin[edit]

Statue of the Minangkabau king Adityawarman holding a kerambit

The kerambit is believed to have originated among the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra[1] where, according to folklore, it was inspired by the claws of big cats. As with most weapons of the region, it was originally an agricultural implement designed to rake roots, gather threshing and plant rice. As it was weaponised, the blade became more curved to maximise cutting potential. Through Indonesia's trade network and close contact with neighbouring countries, the kerambit was eventually dispersed through what are now Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and the Philippines.[2]

Culturally the kerambit was a subject of condescension in Java because of its history as a weapon of the agrarian peasantry, as opposed to the kesatria (warrior class) who were trained in the keraton or palace. European accounts tell that soldiers in Indonesia were armed with a kris at their waist or back and a spear in their hands, while the kerambit was used as a last resort when the fighter's other weapons were lost in battle. Nevertheless it was popular among women who would tie the weapon into their hair to be used in self-defense. Even today, silat practitioners regard it as a feminine weapon. The renowned Bugis warriors of Sulawesi were famous for their embrace of the kerambit. Today it is one of the main weapons of silat and is commonly used in Filipino martial arts as well.

Superficially the kerambit resembles the jambiyah but there is no connection. The jambiyah was always designed as a weapon and serves as a status marker, often made by skilled artisans and jewelers using precious stones and metals, whereas the kerambit was and still remains an unadorned, modest farmer's implement and useful utility knife.

Technique[edit]

First Step to holding a kerambit with knife inhand and index finger thru knife hole
The weapon is held by inserting the first finger into the hole at the top of the handle so that its blade curves forward from the bottom of the fist.
Second step to holding a kerambit with fingers tips closed tightly behind handle of knife
Next the user closes their fingers tight around the handle locking the handle into the hand.
Last step to hloding kerambit with index finger tightened around finger hole
The user then closes the index finger around the finger ring. And finally, the thumb is closed tightly against the fingers in a typical fist fashion.

The kerambit is held with the blade pointing downward from the bottom of the fist, either curving forwards or backwards. While it is primarily used in a slashing or hooking motion, kerambit with a finger ring are also used in a punching motion hitting the opponent with the finger ring. Some kerambit are designed to be used in a hammering motion. This flexibility of striking methods is what makes it so useful in self-defense situations. The finger guard makes it difficult to disarm and allows the knife to be maneuvered in the fingers without losing one's grip.

The short Filipino karambit has found some favor in the West because such proponents allege the biomechanics of the weapon allow for more powerful cutting strokes and painful "ripping" wounds, and because its usability is hypothesized as more intuitive, though there continues to be debate about this matter.

Variations[edit]

There are many regional variants of kerambit. The length of the blade, for example, could vary from one village or blacksmith to another. Some have no finger guard and some feature two blades, one on each side of the handle. Traditional types include:

Additionally, modern kerambit may have spikes or spurs on the front or rear ricasso, which may be intended for gripping clothing or horse tack, tearing flesh or for injecting a poison, such as the upas.[3]

Modern forms[edit]

A modern kerambit

The modern Western interpretation of the kerambit is far removed from the original agricultural tool. They may have folding blades (more dangerous to utilise in agrarian contexts) and finished to very high standard, as opposed to being rudimentary and makeshift. As they are made from expensive materials, the Western variation is beyond the financial means of most South East Asian peasants. They also are generally larger to accommodate larger hands and the sheath is usually made of modern materials rather than wood or leather.

The West has recently found the kerambit to be useful for self-defense. Most of those produced in the West for use as weapons are based on the small Filipino variety, which features a short blade and index finger ring. Both fixed blade (generally double-edged) and folding (generally single-edged) kerambit are produced by a number of makers, including Warren Thomas, Mantis Knives,[4] Emerson Knives,[5] Strider Knives,[6] Spyderco, Cold Steel,[7] Craig Camerer, United Cutlery, Rich Derespina,[8] Cutters Knife and Tool,[9] 5.11 Tactical,[10] Kramer Custom Knives, Tom Ferry Knives, Mike Snody, Quartermaster Knives, Tindle Knife Works, and Fox Cutlery.[11]

In popular culture[edit]

  • A kerambit is included in the crest of the Royal Malaysian Police.
  • The famous Javanese playwright Nadiputra titled one of his three plays Awang Kerambit.
  • In the movie Taken, Liam Neeson fights Sheik Raman's guard who uses a kerambit.
  • A kerambit is used by Lazlo Mourne in the Mushashi Flex novel by Steve Perry.
  • A folding Emerson Combat Karambit is used by Michael Westen in the Television Series Burn Notice.
  • An Emerson Karambit Fixed Blade is used by Alex Mason and Frank Woods in the level Executive Order in the 2010 video game Call of Duty: Black Ops.
  • A Cold Steel Steel Tiger Karambit is used by a Thai gang member in The Man from Nowhere.
  • A folding Emerson Super Karambit is used by Roan in TV series Nikita.
  • A kerambit is used by Katya (Sam Phillips) a mute female terrorist working with Simon Gruber in Die Hard with a Vengeance.
  • The Emerson Karambit Fixed Blade also resurfaces in the mission "Old Wounds" from the video game Call Of Duty: Black Ops 2, it is used by Sgt Frank Woods in order to interrogate Lev Kravchenko.
  • Sam Fisher (portrayed by stunt actor and International Combat Systema founder Kevin Secours) in Splinter Cell Blacklist is armed with a modern kerambit[12] for close quarter combat.
  • A hitman in the film Bullet to the Head kills Stallone's partner with a folding kerambit.
  • A kerambit is an exceedingly rare special item in Counter-Strike: Global Offensive
  • A kerambit was used by Hannibal Lecter in the film Hannibal to kill a hitman and cut open Chief Inspector Rinaldo Pazzi's gut.
  • A kerambit is used by the antagonist Alphard in Canaan.
  • The character Valmet wields a kerambit in episode 12 of the anime series Jormungand.
  • Screaming Mantis in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots uses multiple kerambit during her boss fight.
  • The opening scene of the film Merantau shows a silat routine with a kerambit.
  • "The Assassin", a cold blooded killer character from The Raid 2, wields a pair of kerambit.
  • In the film The Punisher (2004 film), The Punisher, played by Thomas Jane, uses a small folding kerambit to cut a guards throat during the final battle scene. A tie-in action figure for the film was also released with a small plastic version of the same knife.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agus Mulyana (2010). "KERAMBIT: Senjata Genggam Khas Minangkabau". Sumedang Online. Retrieved 2014-10-09. 
  2. ^ Proyek Pembinaan Permuseuman Jakarta (Indonesia). Koleksi pilihan museum-museum negeri propinsi. Proyek Pembinaan Permuseuman Jakarta: 1989. 65 pages
  3. ^ Sheikh Shamsuddin. The Malay art of self-defense: silat seni gayong. North Atlantic Books, 2005 ISBN 1-55643-562-2, ISBN 978-1-55643-562-1. 247 pages. pp234
  4. ^ [1] Mantis Knives
  5. ^ "Emerson Combat Karambit". Emerson Knives Inc. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  6. ^ "Model HS Karambit". Strider Knives Inc. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  7. ^ "Steel Tiger". Cold Steel. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  8. ^ "Custom Knife Gallery". Derespina Knives. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  9. ^ "Bengal folding Karambit". Cutters Knife and Tool, Inc. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  10. ^ "5.11 Tactical Knives". 5.11 Tactical. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  11. ^ [2] Fox Cutlery
  12. ^ "Sam Fisher's Karambit". Unfinished Man. Retrieved 16 September 2014.