|Princely state: Karauli (करौली)|
|Independence from: its foundation in 1348 and even earlier, when their capital was Mathura, Dwarika, Bayana, Timan Garh, Andher Kotla, Mandrayal, U'ntgir and Bahadurpur]|
|State existed:||10th century to 1949|
Arjun Deo founded the Karauli in 1348. In 1817, Karauli signed a treaty with East India Company and British government and became its ally state, the status was maintained till the independence of India in 1947.
The state had an area of 3,178 km2 (1,227 sq mi). In 1901, the population of the state was 156,786, and that of the town was 23,482. Millets, the staple food of the people, was the main agricultural produce. As of the early 20th century, there were no major industries; a little weaving, dyeing, wood-turning and stone cutting constituted the notable cottage industries. Most goods, as also salt, sugar, cotton, buffaloes and bullocks, were imported; rice and goats comprised the main exports.
After India's independence in 1947, the state under Maharaja Ganesh Pal Deo acceded to the Dominion of India on 7 April 1949; Karauli later merged with the Union of India and became part of the state of Rajasthan.
The main village in Karauli district is Mandrayal or Mandrail. This village is famous because it was the first fort which Raja Arjun Deo conquered in 1327 in his ancestral region, and joins the two states M.P. and Rajasthan. Puranmal, the Raja of Amber, fought in the battle of Mandrail in favour of Mughals in the year 1534. The following year, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged the fort of Chittor, upon which Humayun himself started to fight against him. Rani Karmawati, the widow of Rana Sanga, was ruling Chittor as regent. She also tried to be friendly with Mughals and sent a Rakhi to Humayun, but Humayun did not arrive in time. If he would have arrived in time and helped Karmawati, perhaps it would have been Sisodias as their close allies. However, Kachwahas became the first allies of Mughals in Rajputana. Bharmal's policy towards Mughals was merely an extension of his brother's policy.
Bharmal's eldest brother Raja Puranmal died at the Battle of Mandrail in 1534, while helping Humayun to recapture the fort of Bayana. He had a son named Surajmal or Sooja. But he was not recognized as king and his younger brother Raja Bhim Singh ascended to the throne of Amber. Bhim Singh was succeeded by his son Raja Ratan Singh and Raja Bharmal succeeded him in 1548.
- An ethnographical hand-book for the N.-W. provinces and Oudh By William Crooke