Karen languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Karen language)
Jump to: navigation, search
Karen
Ethnicity: Karen people
Geographic
distribution:
Burma and across the border into Thailand
Linguistic classification: Sino-Tibetan
  • Karen
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2 / 5: kar
Glottolog: kare1337[1]

The Karen /kəˈrɛn/,[2] or Karenic, languages are tonal languages spoken by some seven million Karen people. They are of unclear affiliation within the Sino-Tibetan languages.[3] The Karen languages are written using the Burmese script.[4] The three main branches are Sgaw, Pwo, and Pa'o. Karenni (also known Kayah or Red Karen) and Kayan (also known as Padaung) are related to the Sgaw branch. They are almost unique among the Sino-Tibetan languages in having a subject–verb–object word order; other than Karen and Bai, Sino-Tibetan languages feature a subject–object–verb order.[5] This is likely due to influence from neighboring Mon and Tai languages.[6] The Karen languages are also considered unusual for not having any Chinese influence.[7]

Classification[edit]

Because they differ from other Tibeto-Burman languages in morphology and syntax, Benedict (1972: 2–4, 129) removed the Karen languages from Tibeto-Burman in a Tibeto-Karen branch, but this in no longer accepted.[3][6]

The internal structure of the family is as follows:

Manson (2011)[edit]

Manson (2011)[8] classifies the Karen languages as follows. The classifications of Geker, Gekho, Kayaw, and Manu are ambiguous, as they may be either Central or Southern.

Karen

Shintani (2012)[edit]

Shintani (2012:x)[9] gives the following tentative classification, proposed in 2002, for what he calls the "Brakaloungic" languages, of which Karen is a branch. Individual languages are marked in italics.

Brakaloungic
  • Pao
  • Karen
    • Kayah-Padaung
      • Kayah
      • Pado-Thaido-Gekho
        • Thaidai
        • Pado-Gekho
    • Bwe
    • Sgaw-Pwo
      • Pwo
      • Mobwa
      • Pako-Sgaw

However, at the time of publication, Shintani (2012) reports that there are more than 40 Brakaloungic languages and/or dialects, many of which have only been recently reported and documented. Shintani also reports that Mon influence is present in all Brakaloungic languages, while some also have significant Burmese and Shan influence.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Karen". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  3. ^ a b Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). The Sino-Tibetan Languages. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. 
  4. ^ Omniglot
  5. ^ Description of the Sino-Tibetan Language Family
  6. ^ a b Matisoff, James A. (1991). "Sino-Tibetan Linguistics: Present State and Future Prospects". Annual Review of Anthropology (Annual Reviews Inc.) 20: 469–504. doi:10.1146/annurev.an.20.100191.002345. 
  7. ^ Thai Cultural Tourism
  8. ^ http://jseals.org/seals21/manson11subgroupingd.pdf
  9. ^ Shintani Tadahiko (2012). A handbook of comparative Brakaloungic languages. Tokyo: ILCAA.
  • George van Driem (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill.

External links[edit]