Kargopolsky District

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Kargopolsky District
Каргопольский район (Russian)
Ru-ark-kargopolsky loc.svg
Location of Kargopolsky District in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Coordinates: 61°30′N 38°56′E / 61.500°N 38.933°E / 61.500; 38.933Coordinates: 61°30′N 38°56′E / 61.500°N 38.933°E / 61.500; 38.933
Начальная школа в с Лядины.JPG
Primary school in the village of Gavrilovskaya in Kargopolsky District
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Arkhangelsk Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2012)
Administrative center town of Kargopol[2]
Administrative divisions:[2]
Towns of district significance 1
Selsoviets 12
Inhabited localities:[2]
Cities/towns 1
Rural localities 242
Municipal structure (as of March 2012)
Municipally incorporated as Kargopolsky Municipal District[3]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 5
Statistics
Area 10,127 km2 (3,910 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 18,466 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 55.3%
- Rural 44.7%
Density 1.82/km2 (4.7/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Established July 15, 1929[8]
Official website
Kargopolsky District on WikiCommons

Kargopolsky District (Russian: Каргопо́льский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.[1] As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kargopolsky Municipal District.[3] It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Plesetsky District in the north, Nyandomsky District in the northeast, Konoshsky District in the east, Kirillovsky District of Vologda Oblast in the south, Vytegorsky District, also of Vologda Oblast, in the southwest, and with Pudozhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the northwest. The area of the district is 10,127 square kilometers (3,910 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the town of Kargopol.[2] Population: 18,466 (2010 Census);[5] 21,514 (2002 Census);[9] 24,589 (1989 Census).[10] The population of Kargopol accounts for 55.3% of the district's total population.[5]

History[edit]

The coat of arms of Kargopol from 1781

The area was originally populated by the Finno-Ugric peoples and then colonized by the Novgorod Republic. Traditionally, the foundation of Kargopol is thought to be in 1146, although it was not first mentioned in the chronicles until the 14th century. In the 15th century, it was already a fortress, playing an important role in the struggle between Novgorod and the emerging power of Moscow. In particular, in 1447 the outlaw prince Dmitry Shemyaka, after being chased from Moscow by Vasily II, fled to Kargopol and stayed there for over a year. After the fall of Novgorod, the area became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the 16th century, Kargopol was one of the biggest towns of Russia, and was mainly a merchant town due to its location on the road from Moscow to Arkhangelsk (at the time, the main Russian harbor for European trade). Kargopol was also used for political exile. For instance, Ivan Bolotnikov, the leader of the peasant insurgence, was sent to Kargopol in 1607, where he was blinded and then drowned. After St. Petersburg was built in 1703, the trade was rerouted to the Baltic Sea and the importance of Kargopol diminished.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known from 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, it was transferred to the newly established Novgorod Governorate. After a number of administrative reforms, in 1801 Kargopol ended up as the seat of Kargopolsky Uyezd, one of the four uyezds of the newly established Olonets Governorate. On April 30, 1919, Kargopolsky Uyezd was transferred to Vologda Governorate, and in 1922, when Olonets Governorate was abolished, some areas from Vytegorsky Uyezd were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd. On July 15, 1929, the uyezds were abolished, the governorates merged into Northern Krai, and Kargopolsky District was established among others. It became a part of Nyandoma Okrug of Northern Krai.[8]

The areas south of Lake Lacha belonged to Kirillovsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate. In 1918, five uyezds of Novgorod Governorate, including Kirillovsky Uyezd, were split off to form Cherepovets Governorate. In 1919, these areas were transferred to Kargopolsky Uyezd.[11]

In the following years, the first-level administrative division of Russia kept changing. In 1930, the okrug was abolished, and the district was subordinated to the central administration of Northern Krai. In 1936, the krai was transformed into Northern Oblast. In 1937, Northern Oblast itself was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast. Kargopolsky District remained in Arkhangelsk Oblast ever since.

Geography[edit]

The village of Niz in winter

The district is almost exclusively located in the basin of the Onega River, which is the biggest river in the district, and belongs to the basin of the White Sea. The source of the Onega is Lake Lacha, which is the biggest lake in the district. The northeastern shore of Lake Vozhe, also in the basin of the Onega, belongs to Kargopolsky District, but the lake itself is in Vologda Oblast. The two lakes are connected by the Svid River. The major tributary of the Onega is the Voloshka River (left). Some minor areas in the northwest of the district belong to the basin of the Vodla River and eventually of the Baltic Sea, and very minor areas in the southwest belong to the basin of the Kema River and eventually to the Caspian Sea.

There are many lakes in the district, especially in the northwest. The biggest lake after Lake Lacha is Lake Lyokshmozero, which is connected to the Onega by the Lyokshma River.

The major part of the district is covered by coniferous forests (taiga).

The northern part of the district, including Lake Lyokshmozero, is included into Kenozersky National Park (which is split between Kargopolsky and Plesetsky Districts).

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

The borders of Kargopolsky District for the most part conform to those of the municipal district, with the exception of the settlement of Sovza, which is administratively a part of Yertsevsky Selsoviet of Konoshsky District,[12] but is municipally incorporated within Ukhotskoye Rural Settlement of Kargopolsky Municipal District.[3]

Administrative divisions[edit]

As an administrative division, the district is divided into twelve selsoviets and one town of district significance (Kargopol).[2] The following selsoviets have been established (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):

  • Kalitinsky (Kalitinka)
  • Khotenovsky (Kononovo)
  • Krechetovsky (Krechetovo)
  • Lyokshmozersky (Morshchikhinskaya)
  • Lodyginsky (Kazakovo)
  • Oshevensky (Shiryaikha)
  • Pavlovsky (Prigorodny)
  • Pechnikovsky (Vatamanovskaya)
  • Priozyorny (Shelokhovskaya)
  • Tikhmangsky (Patrovskaya)
  • Usachevsky (Usachevskaya)
  • Ukhotsky (Pesok)

Municipal divisions[edit]

As a municipal division, the district is divided into one urban settlement and five rural settlements (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):[3]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Timber industry is the basic industry of the district. The linum production factory, which used to exist in Kargopol until the 1970s, is defunct.[13]

Agriculture[edit]

Traditionally, the lands northwest of Kargopol were used to grow crops, and until the 1970s linum was also cultivated. However, these activities became unprofitable due to depopulation (in a hundred years, the number of villages was reduced by a factor of five), and in the 1970s the district's production shifted to beef and milk. This has been further reduced in the 1990s due to the economic crisis in Russia.[13] There is also fishery, mainly on the lakes including Lake Lacha.

Transportation[edit]

Kargopol is connected by a paved road with Nyandoma and further east the principal highway in the region, M8 connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk. There is a road to the north, which connects to M8 via Plesetsk and Brin-Navolok. This is the historic trading route which connected Kargopol with Arkhangelsk before the railroad was built, and long stretches of this road are still unpaved. The stretch between Kargopol and Plesetsk was paved in 2011.[14] Another unpaved road in the western direction crosses the border with the Republic of Karelia and heads to Pudozh.

There is no railroad in Kargopol, even though at the time of construction of the railway between Vologda and Arkhangelsk (the decision on the route was taken by Tsar Alexander III in June 1894) it was the biggest town in the region, and the railway was constructed through unpopulated areas. There is an urban legend stating that Kargopol merchants were unhappy with the prospective of the railway construction in Kargopol thinking it would deteriorate the trade, and therefore requested the railway to be built in detour. As a matter of fact, the local governance body, the Kargopol Duma, in September 1894 twice discussed the issue, came to the conclusion that the railroad construction indeed would deteriorate the trade, but that if it does not pass Kargopol, the damage would be much stronger. Therefore, on both occasions, the Duma sent a petition requesting that the railway would be rerouted via Kargopol. This did not occur, since the construction has already started in August 1894, and since the detour would be too big, as Kargopol is not on a straight line connecting Vologda with Arkhangelsk.[15]

Culture and recreation[edit]

The Saunino Pogost: the wooden church of St. John Chrysostom (1665) with bell tower

Kargopolsky District has a very high concentration of historical, archaeological, and architectural monuments. The district contains 40 objects (thirteen of them in Kargopol) classified as cultural and historical heritage by Russian Federal law, and additionally 182 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance.[16] Most of these are the white-stone churches of the town of Kargopol and wooden churches and chapels located in the area. The town of Kargopol contains a number of white-stone churches, the earliest of which, the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ, dates back to 1552. This is the oldest building of mainland Arkhangelsk Oblast (some buildings of the Solovetsky Monastery also stem from the 16th century).

The monuments classified as historical and architectural heritage include:

The only state museum in the district is Kargopol State Museum of History, Art, and Architecture, founded in 1919.[19] This is cloak organization, which not only holds ethnographic, art and historic exhibits, but also protects some of the architectural monuments in Kargopol and surroundings. Fifteen buildings, including a number of churches, belong to the museum. Another museum was open in 1994 in the school of the selo of Lyadiny.[20] There are also two private museums in Kargopol.

Kargopol toys, a painting by Elena Kostenko

There is a traditional handicraft in Kargopol and the area which is production of painted clay toys.[21]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Law #65-5-OZ
  2. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 218», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 218, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
  4. ^ a b Каргопольский район (in Russian). Двина-Информ. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b Президиум Всероссийского центрального исполнительного комитета СССР. Постановление от 15 июля 1929 г. «О составе округов и районов Северного края и их центрах». Опубликован: "СУ РСФСР", №61, ст. 606, 1929. (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Resolution of July 15, 1929 On the Composition of the Okrugs and Districts of Northern Krai and on Their Centers. ).
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Саблин, Василий Анатольевич. История формирования территории и административных изменений Вологодской области (in Russian). booksite.ru. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  12. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 222 818 027», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 11 222 818 027, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  13. ^ a b Нефёдова, Татьяна (2004). Каргопольский район: Прошлое, настоящее и будущее русского Севера. Отечественные Записки (in Russian) (4 (18)). Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ Запущена "Дорога в космос" (in Russian). «Дорожное агентство «Архангельскавтодор». September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011. 
  15. ^ Студенцова, Е. О. (2009). Уездные города России / Влияние Вологодско-Архангельской железной дороги на экономическое развитие г. Каргополя в конце ХIХ—начале ХХ в. (in Russian). Kargopol. 
  16. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  17. ^ Бодэ, Андрей (2009). Небеса и часовни Кенозерья. Расписные потолки, иконы, деревенские часовни и церкви, составляюшие историко-культурный ландшафт Национального парка "Кенозерский (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-08-19. 
  18. ^ "В Архангельской области сгорели уникальные деревянные церковь и колокольня из храмового комплекса". ITAR TASS. May 6, 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  19. ^ Каргопольский государственный историко-архитектурный и художественный музей (in Russian). Каргопольский государственный историко-архитектурный и художественный музей. Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  20. ^ Мурашов, Андрей (24 October 2003). Не простаивает бабушкина прялка. Российская газета (in Russian). Retrieved August 31, 2011. 
  21. ^ Дурасов, Г. П. (1986). Каргопольская глиняная игрушка. Leningrad: Художник РСФСР. 

Sources[edit]

  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №65-5-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №677-40-ОЗ от 5 июня 2013 г. «О внесении дополнений и изменений в отдельные Областные Законы в связи с изменением законодательства о градостроительной деятельности». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №43, 6 октября 2009 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #65-5-OZ of September 23, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #677-40-OZ of June 5, 2013 On Supplementing and Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to Changes in the Urban Development Legislation. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области (текст в ред. от 15 февраля 2010 г.)», в ред. Областного закона №202-11-ОЗ от 24 октября 2014 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Ломоносовское" и "Холмогорское" Холмогорского муниципального района Архангельской области путём их объединения». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast (text of rev. of February 15, 2010), as amended by the Oblast Law #202-11-OZ of October 24, 2014 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of Lomonosovskoye and Kholmogorskoye in Kholmogorsky Municipal District of Arkhangelsk Oblast by Merging Them. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Brumfield, William. Kargopol: Architectural Heritage in Photographs (Moscow: Tri Kvadrata, 2007) ISBN 978-5-94607-083-6 (in English and in Russian)