|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2014)|
|Regions with significant populations|
Primary populations in: Maharashtra - primarily Tal - Konkan, Goa, Karnataka - primarily coastal Karnataka, Mangaluru, Udupi and interior Shimoga up to Belgaon, Madhya Pradesh - erstwhile Maratha dominions like Gwalior, Indore, Uttar Pradesh - Jhansi, Kanpur, Bundelkhand,Kasargodu regions of Canarese Kerala.
|Sanskrit used for religious purposes|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Havyaka and Shivalli of Coastal Karnataka.|
Karhade (also written as Karada) Brahmins (Marathi: कर्हाडे/कराडे) are a predominantly Pancha Dravida Brahmin sub-group, who speak Marathi and Konkani and to a lesser extent Tulu, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi. In isolated pockets in Northern Kerala and Southern Konkan a few Karhada families still speak the old Karhadi dialect of Marathi/Konkani – which although lexically similar to its parent languages is heavily influenced by Dravidian languages such as Tulu, Kannada and Malayalam.
- 1 Etymology and Origin
- 2 Culture and Language
- 3 Food and Culinary Culture
- 4 Population estimates
- 5 Sub-Groups and Other Classification
- 6 Notables
- 7 Personal names
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
- 11 Further reading
Etymology and Origin
The exact theory about the origins of the origins are varied, some of the most common ones which have been documented are as follows;
- Professor D. R. Bhandarkar concludes that the Karhade must have had at least some partial extraction from the Gurjar (Saka) clans. This however may only apply to the Gurjar / Padhye sub-group of Karhade, who were settled in the Rajapur. Copper plate grants have been found showing some Gurjar origins of some families, especially those with the Kashyapa and Naidhruva gotra.
- there is evidence that during the Chalukya sovereignty over the Deccan during the 10th and 11th centuries, settled Brahmins in the Konkan and Goa regions. The exact origin of these Brahmins is unclear, however at least in one copper-plate grant (found with the Phansalkar Khot family of Terwan) by a Chalukya king to a group of 19 Brahmins settled near Rajapur, there is mention that these Brahmins, as one of their sacerdotal activities would be responsible for creating and maintaining orchards - called Karhataks, in the region surrounding the Vimaleshwar temple. The purpose of these Karhataks, being sustenance of the temple and its occupants, and also growing the flora required for yadnya and homa rituals. Similar copper plate grants have been found with other Karada families in southern Konkan. The Bombay gazette complied by the British contains transcripts of many such copper plates, which are now available for public research.
- it is characteristic of Karhada habitats in Rajapur, Goa and Kasaragode, to have Durga temples on four corners of their domain, the domain traditionally contained well engineered orchards (Karhataks) also called Kulagar in Goa. Even today many Karhada are actively involved in horticulture.
- a much more popular and simplistic theory (however unfounded) relates the origin of this tribe to the modern day town of Karad which is on the banks of the upper Krishna river on the Deccan plateau. - the 'Sahyadri Khanda' in a rather demeaning way to Karhade and Chitpavan Brahmins, indicate that the Karhade were resurrected from the bones of a camel.
Traditionally the Karada Brahmins in close association with the Rajapur Gaud Saraswat and Naik Maratha communities, were involved in horticultural activities and were pioneers in ground water cultivation and irrigation techniques. Like the Havyaka of Karnataka, the Karade have been involved in Betelnut cultivation and other horticultural activities surrounding the temples. These orchards originally called Karhatak, can still be found in the Konkan and are called Kulagar in Goa.
Most modern Karhade share the gotra with other Brahmins of the sub-continent. It is not known how the various Brahmin tribes with such diverse origins came to inherit the same paternal lineages. The Gotra system may have been philosophical/ideological at its roots rather than the popular belief that it indicates the genealogical origins.
Culture and Language
Under the patronage of Adi Sankara and Madhwacharya, now Karhades are (Smarta and Vaishnava) and followers of the Advaita or Dvaita school of philosophy. They are Rigvedi Brahmins and follow the Ashwalayana Sutra. Although a vast majority adopted Vedic Hinduism a few profess other religious traditions.
One of the distinctive features of the Karhades belief system, is that their titulary deities (Graam Devatha or Kula Daiwat) are almost always different versions of Shakti or Durga. Five 'Durga' temples are in the four corners of Kerala-Karnataka region where there is concentration of Karhaade population – Kongoor at Mangalore and Aavala, Kuntikanna, Agalpaady and Thaire in Kasaragod. Similarly in the Marathi speaking domains, Karhada populations have always patronised Mahalakshmi-Kolhapur and Durga-Goa. Similarly, the Marathi dominions host 3 1/2 'Durga' temples in its four corners, Kolhapur, Tuljapur, Vani and Mahur. Originally the Kshaharatas perhaps spoke an old Eastern-Iranian language, however under the increasing cultural influences from the Satavahanas gradually their languages were Prakritised. They used Kharoshti and Brahmi scripts for writing. Subsequent Brahminisation during the Middle Ages inspired the Karhades to learn Sanskrit as a medium to officiate religious ceremonies.
Most modern day Marathi-speaking Karhade live in Maharashtra and Goa, though a significant population exists in Madhya Pradesh. A southern branch of Karhade Brahmins settled around the Kasaragodu region (north of the Chandragiri river) of the Malabar coast and are called the Karada and share their traditions with fellow Tuluva Brahmins of Kasargode and Dakshina Kannada/Udipi. Other Tuluva Brahmins of the region are Shivalli and Havyaka. South of the Chandragiri river, collectively the Tulu and certain Karhada Brahmins, who assimilated with the Kerala Brahmins are loosely called Embranthiri.
In some pockets the Karadi dialect has been preserved or has influenced the spoken languages of Karhade, e.g. the Karada Bhashe of Dakshina Kannada/Kasargodu, the Karhadi Boli of Rajapur/Sawantwadi and some peculiarities of the Marathi spoken by the Karhade of Bundelkhand.
Particular mention is made of the Karhadi language of Kasaragodu, several researchers like Dr. Radhakrishna Belluru - Kannur University, Nozomi Kodama - Tokyo University and Smt. Saraswathi - Hampi University have studied this intra-community language unique to the region. Dr. Radhakrishna Belluru published a book on Karada grammar and edited Karada Vocabulary. Nozomi Kodama also published a book on Karada language. Research has shown that the Kasaragodu Karhadas retained this language which appears to be a dialect of Konkani with significant structural borowings from Kannada and notably Tulu.
According to Dr. Radhakrishna Belluru, two Karada dialects are very popular in Tulu Nadu and Kasaragod region. The second dialect is called Bekila Bhaashe, spoken by later Karhada migrants to the region.
Kasaragodu Karhadas are essentially multi-lingual, resorting to Kannada, Malayalam and Tulu, when communicating outside their community. Unlike them, other Karhadas like those from Hosdrug, interior and northern Canara, Goa and Maharashtra, are now monolingual and can communicate only in the local languages of their residence, i.e. Malayalam, Kannada, Konkani and Marathi respectively.
The modern Karhade celebrate several festivals according to the Hindu Calendar.
Karhadas have actively participated and patronised classical and folk music and art forms. In the Marathi speaking areas, Pandit Jitendra Abhisheki and several others have contributed immensely to the Hindustani Classical music.Another Karhada from Belgaum, Annasaheb Kirloskar promoted the Marathi Natyasangeet. In Kasaragodu region, they have been involved in the local art forms of Yakshagana and Talamaddale. Balipa Narayana Bhagwat is one of the last remaining vocalists from an era where microphones were not so common. Karhadas like Nataraja Sharma Ballapadavu, Balasubrahmanya Bhat (son of very popular violinist late Vishnu Bhat Kolikkaje) and Ballapadavu Yogeesha Sharma actively run music schools in Kasaragodu. Prince Rama Varma a descendant of Swathithirunal regularly visits - Veenavadini, Agalpaady to conduct music classes for young aspiring Karhade Brahmins.
Food and Culinary Culture
The diet of all sub-groups of Karhada Brahmins is essentially lacto vegetarian. Regional influences have flavoured Karhada cuisine, notably the southern Karhada food is influenced by Shivalli and Havyaka Brahmin habits. Similarly in Marathi speaking regions the food is indistinguishable from that of Deshastha and Chitpavan Brahmins.
Dairy based products such cow milk, yoghurt, clarified butter (Ghee) and butter milk are consumed in large quantities.
Anecdotally in Maharshtra, there is a saying which goes as follows;
"Karadyani Swayampak karava, Deshasthane vadava aani Kokanasthane avarava" - Translated meaning - Karada should cook, the Deshastha should serve and the Chitpavan should tidy up - that tanatamounts to a perfect meal.
The exact population of Karhade Brahmins is not known since the sub-caste wise census was not conducted after 1931. In 1931, the population of Karhades in Ratnagiri, Mumbai, Thane, Pune, Satara, Solapur, Ahmednagar, Nasik, Khandesh was 22,997.
In 1931, the population of India was 278,977,238. In 2011, the population of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (that were India in 1931) reached 1,545,193,422. Proportionately, Karhades work out to 127,375.
Population growth across India was uneven after 1931. The population grew in northern and eastern India. However, it stabilized and has been falling in the southern and western states, as amply evidenced by natural growth rates. Since Karhade Brahmins concentrated in southern and western states, in all likelihood, the population of Karhade Brahmins did not grow in the same proportion as the whole of India. Karhade Brahmins took to education and other developmental parameters before World War II. Arguably their natural growth rates and population growth followed trends similar to the United Kingdom. The educated population of the United Kingdom which grew by about 36% from 1931 to 2011. Assuming similar population trends, the population of Karhades in and around Mumbai works out to 31,208. Adding 30,586 from Karhades outside of Maharashtra makes this population to be 61,794.
The Joshua project lists the total population of Karhade Brahmins as 87,000. Considering all the numbers above, it is likely that the population of Karhade Brahmins is less than 1,00,000, making these group of people a micro-minority in India.
Sub-Groups and Other Classification
Sub grouping tend to follow regions of settlement and thus the language spoken at home. The following groups can now easily be identified:
Karhada Brahman: The Maharashtrian "proper" group constitutes the largest group and mostly hail from, reside in or have strong connections with modern Maharashtra, Belgaum, Indore, Baroda and Vidarbha. This groups speaks standard Marathi. It has traditionally been endogamous with other Karhade sub-groups such as Gurjar / Padhye, except with Rigvedi Deshastha Brahmins, with whom intermarriages were not uncommon. In modern times the group is exogamous with Chitpavan Brahmins also. Typical surnames being Mulye,Dhamankar, Upadhye, Alawani, Dhore, Naware, Naphade, Hardikar, Athalye, Paradkar, Moghe, Gune, Palsule, Kher, Bhadbhade, Mahajani, Sapre, Tambe, Valame, Shahane, Mainkar, Agte, Tikekar, Bhatwadekar, Pandit, Kirloskar, Bhadkamkar amongst others. Traditional occupations included temple priests, administrative positions although quite a few families actively pursued horticulture.
Gurjar / Padhye: This ancient sub-group hails from the southern Konkan area – notably from Rajapur extending into the erstwhile Sawantwadi state. This group speaks standard Marathi but is believed to have once spoken a dialect that is very rare in modern times. Typical surnames in this sub-group are Bhagwat, Kashelkar, Gurjar, Gurjarpadhye, Patwardhan, Shouche, Tatke, Ghate, Mirashi, Degwekar, Prabhudesai, Thakurdesai, Sardesai, Padhye, Huzurbazar, Kirtane, Yogi and others. Traditional occupations were temple priests and horticulturists. The family deity of this sub-group is Arya Durga of Devi Hasol and Ankola, and most belong to the Kashyapa and / or Naidhruva gotra. This sub-group has traditionally been exogamous with Karhade, Padye and Rigvedi Deshastha. In modern times, intermarriages with Chitpavan are also common. They also worship the Sun God in the form of Lord Shri Kanakaditya whose ancient 12th Century Temple is at Village "Kasheli" in Taluka Rajapur of District Ratnagiri and his wife "Shri Devi Kalika" from the neighboring village "Adivare". Shri Kanakaditya Temple at Kasheli is one of the very few Sun Temples in India, besides Konark in Orissa. The idol of the Sun God in this temple at Kasheli is believed to have been brought from Somnath (Gujarat) by a temple dancer named 'Kanaka' and hence the name Kanaka-Aditya - Aditya meaning the Sun.
Goan / Padye: This is the largest sub-group residing or having strong connections with modern Goa. They speak variant of standard Konkani called Bhati Bhasha and are primarily temple priests and horticulturists (Kulagar). Typical surnames are Nigale, Tengshe, Abhisheki, Nawathe, Dhavalikar, Prabhudesai, Desai, Sardesai and Thakurdesai.
Goan / Bhat Prabhu: This sub-group appears to be a further sub-group of the Padye. This group constitutes descendants of a formerly degraded group of Padye, who were readmitted into the group in the earlier part of the 20th century. They speak standard Konkani.
Kasaragode Karada: This sub-group is believed to have descended from a few Karhade/Gurjarpadhye and Padye families who emigrated out of Rajapur/Goa during the Portuguese times. This sub-group still retains the use of the Karada Bhasha – which is a form of old Marathi/Konkani highly influenced by local Dravidian languages. The Kasaragode Karada like their northern kinsmen were traditionally temple priests and horticulturists. Typical villages or origin are Kedukodi, Agalpady, Balappadavu, Balipa, Mundodu, Thaire, Avala etc.
Karade from Tulunadu: This relatively smaller sub-group descends from economic migrants of Maharashtrian Karhade and / or Gurjar Padhye origins during the ascent of the Maratha Confederation across India. Few have traditionally been horticulturists. They speak standard Kannada and Tulu. Due to linguistic affiliations this group is exogamous to the Kasaragode Karada, Chitpawan of Dakshina Kannada and occasionally Padye of Goa.
Sagar Karhade: Like the Tulunadu Karhada - a small but influential group of Karhada families emigrated to northern India, wherever the Maratha Confederation was dominant. Places like Indore, Gwalher, Jabalpur and notably Bundelkhand received many Karhada immigrants. Especially in Sagar, a Karhada sub-culture can be argued to have been formed. Most Sagar Karhada held high positions during the Maratha rule, and now are mostly professionals. The speak standard Hindi and can communicate in Bundeli and Marathi. This sub-group is endogamous to all Marathi speaking Brahmins such as Karhade, Deshastha and more recently Chitpawan.
Linguistic and regional differences have led to the various sub-groups evolving hitherto independently of each other. Modern means of communications, notably through social media, person-to-person contacts, travel etc., will no doubt lead to an increased occurrence of intermarriages and perhaps the evolution of a greater sense of Karhada identity in the future. In reality, amalgamation through inter-marriages with other Brahmin sub-groups who share the same linguistic and regional background is taking place.
Karhade Brahmins have been significant participants throughout the history of India.
- Hemadpant, Prime Minister of Yadavas in the 13th century
- Keshav Pandit (Purohit), Rajpurohit of Chhatrapati Shivaji, Sambhaji and Rajaram
- Chimnaji Damodar (Moghe), Minister of Chhatrapati Shahu and Peshwa of Kolhapur state
- Govind Pant Bundele (Kher), Peshwa Bajirao's General who died in the Battle of Panipat (1761)
- Mahadaji Pant Guruji (Karkare), Advisor and Tutor of Peshwa Madhavrao I and Sawai Madhavrao
- Visaji Krushna Biniwale (Chinchalkar), Peshwa Madhavrao I's General in Northern India.
- Moropant (Paradkar), One of the highly respected Marathi poets
- Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi
- Hardekar Manjappa - 'Gandhi of Karnataka' Freedom Fighter
- Padmabhushan 'Riyasatkar' Govind Sakharam Sardesai
- Padmabhushan Mahamahopadhyaya Datto Vaman Potdar, Historian & Vice Chancellor of University of Pune
- Padmabhushan Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, Indiologist
- Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, historian
- Durga Bhagwat The only writer who refused to accept Jnanpith Award.
- Balshastri Jambhekar Father of Marathi journalism and Social Reformer.
- Jayant Narlikar, astronomer, astrophysicist
- Suresh Bhat, famous Marathi Poet, established the form of Ghazal in Marathi
- Shantanurao Laxmanrao Kirloskar, Industrialist
- Narayana Subbarao Hardikar - Freedom Fighter, Satyagrahi
- Vasant Kanetkar, Marathi - playwright
- Prof.(Dr.) Vinod R. Kanetkar, Noted Dyestuff Technologist, Professor & Former Head, Dyestuff Technology Dept, Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), Mumbai
- Jitendra Abhisheki, Veteran Indian Classical Singer and Musician
- Arati Ankalikar-Tikekar, classical singer
- Ulhas Kashalkar, Noted Hindustani Classical Vocalist.
- Hemant Karkare, ATS Chief
- Nikhil Kanetkar, Badminton player
- Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher First chief minister of Bombay State,1937 Which consisted of Maharashtra & Gujarat State together.
- Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (affectionately known as Shri Guruji or Golwalkar Guruji), second Sarsanghachalak of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
- Mohan Madhukar Bhagwat Sarsanghachalak of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
- Padmabhushan Shantanurao Laxmanrao Kirloskar, Doyen Of Indian Industry
- Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar (popularly known as Dadasaheb), President of the Central Legislative Assembly, then Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of India, and later the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha
- Govind Ballabh Pant
- Bhalji Pendharkar, Well known Marathi film maker
- Nandu Natekar, Well known Badminton Player of India
- Madhu Sapre, International Model
- Sharadchandra Shankar Shrikhande - famous mathematician who discovered Shrikhande graph
- Padmashree Pandit Jitendra Abhisheki - famous Goan born who revived Marathi Sangith Natak parampara.
- Pandit Talyogi Suresh Dattatray Talwalkar
Names in Karhade families generally follow conventions.
Marathi and Konkani -Speaking Karhade and Padye Brahmins
After the standardization of family names during the British rule, the names of Marathi and Konkani speaking Karhadas are nowadays characterised by three part structure;
The given name is granted to the infant typically during the first month, during the Barsa ceremony. Traditional examples are Vishnu, Mahadeo, Durgadas, Bhagwan, Ramachandra, Bhargavram and Shankar. Honorary suffixes such as pant, rao, shastri and bhat were attached to male names to signify status. Traditional examples among females were Savitri, Narmada, Ahilya and Ganga, with suffixes such as bai, tai and akka.
The father's name, is the given name of the father (or husband of married women). The honorary suffixes are usually dropped.
The surname is often derived from the family's original village. Like other Marathi people, the suffix -kar is attached at the end, e.g. one who hails from the village Satavla, would call himself Satavlekar. Other surnames suggest the occupation or simply ones gotra. Listed below are Karada surnames.
Thus when asked, a Karhada would recite his name typically like Vishnupant Mahadeo Satavlekar and his other half might call herself Savitribai Vishnu Satavlekar.
Nicknames such as Dada, Tatya, Nana, Anna and Appa often replace the first and middle names among the immediate family and in case of socially prominent personalities. In the latter case the suffix -saheb applies to such affectionate nicknames. Thus Dada Satavlekar to his close relatives and Dadasaheb Satavlekar to his community.
Some Karhada families that assimilated into Hindustani- and Gujarati-speaking regions of Northern and Western India, modified their erstwhile Marathi surnames. Surnames ending "e" were altered to end with a "ia" or "iya". Thus Jade became Jadiya, Athale became Athalya and Nawathe became Nawathia.
Karhade Brahmins settled in Tulu, Kannada and Malayalam-Speaking regions
The standardization of family names during the British rule, affected the southern branch, Tulu, Kannada and Malayalam speaking Karhada names are also characterised by three part structure;
Male traditional given names include, Shreerama, Shankaranarayana, Venkatesha and Ganapathi. Females include Savithree, Ahalya and Ganga.
Aouthern Karhadas use honorary titles such as bhat, bhatta, sharma, sasthry' Bhat' is indicative of Brahmin status - every Brahmin including Havyaka or Shivalli is called 'bhat' irrespective of sub-caste or family name. It is a common practice to append 'sharma' to one's name at the time of Munja. For example, Brahmopadesham indicates that after Upanayana Samskaara, one attains 'brahminhood'. The early migrants were priests, scholars, astrologers and cooks - making them all Bhats, Jois, Sharmas, Shastrys, Paadhyes and Upaadhyes.
The third part of southern names is typically derived from the original village. However, the suffix -kar is not attached, e.g. one who hails from the village Pathanadka, would merely call himself Pathanadka. This is distinct from the Shivalli practice of using the suffice -aya - where the surname in the example above would have been Pathanadkathaya. Other surnames suggest the occupation or simply use gotra.
Thus when asked, a southern Karhada would recite his name typically like Srirama Bhat Pathanadka or Pathanadka Srirama Bhat and a female would call herself Savithri Bhat Pathanadka.
- Gune, Vitthal Trimbak (1979). Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu 1. Goa, Daman and Diu (India). Gazetteer Dept. p. 229.
- "Karhade Brahmanancha itihas" by Late V. V. Athalye (Page 37)
- "Eminent Karhade Brahmin Personalities". The Karhaadaa. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
- The Tribes and Castes of Bombay – R.E.Enthoven ISBN 81-206-0630-2 to 81-206-0633-7.
- The Tribes and Castes of H.E.H The Nizam's Dominions-Syed Siraj-ul-Hassan ISBN 81-206-0488-1.
- "Foreign Elements in the Hindu Population," Indian Antiquary, no. 40 (1911):7-37, 179-180 Bhandarkar, Devadatta Ramakrishna
- J. A. Auld Memoir on the Sawunt Waree State, p. 281-282, at Google Books