Kariba Dam

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Kariba Dam
Kariba dam.jpg
The dam as seen from Zimbabwe
Location Zambia
Zimbabwe
Coordinates 16°31′18″S 28°45′41″E / 16.52167°S 28.76139°E / -16.52167; 28.76139Coordinates: 16°31′18″S 28°45′41″E / 16.52167°S 28.76139°E / -16.52167; 28.76139
Construction began 1955
Opening date 1959
Construction cost US$480 million
Owner(s) Zambezi River Authority
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Arch dam
Impounds Zambezi River
Height 128 m (420 ft)
Length 579 m (1,900 ft)
Reservoir
Creates Lake Kariba
Total capacity 180 km3 (43 cu mi)
Catchment area 663,000 km2 (256,000 sq mi)
Surface area 5,400 km2 (2,100 sq mi)
Max. length 280 km (174 miles)
Max. water depth 97 m (318 ft)
Power station
Installed capacity 1,319 MW
Annual generation 6,400 GWh

The Kariba Dam is a hydroelectric dam in the Kariba Gorge of the Zambezi river basin between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is one of the largest dams in the world, standing 128 m (420 ft) tall and 579 m (1,900 ft) long.[1]

Construction[edit]

The double curvature concrete arch dam was constructed between 1955 and 1959 by Impresit of Italy[2] at a cost of $135,000,000 for the first stage with only the Kariba South power cavern. Final construction and the addition of the Kariba North Power cavern by Mitchell Construction[3] was not completed until 1977 due to largely political problems for a total cost of $480,000,000. 86 men lost their lives during construction.[2][4]

Power generation[edit]

The Kariba Dam supplies 1,319 MW of electricity to parts of both Zambia (the Copperbelt) and Zimbabwe and generates 6,400 GW·h (23 PJ) per annum. Each country has its own power station on the north and south bank of the dam respectively. The south station belonging to Zimbabwe has been in operation since 1960 and has six generators of 125 MW capacity each for a total of 750 MW.[5] On November 11, 2013 It was announced by Zimbabwe's Finance Minister, Patrick Chinamasa that capacity at the Zimbabwean Kariba hydropower station would be increased by 300 megawatts. The cost of upgrading the facility has been supported by a $319m loan from China. The deal is a clear example of Zimbabwe's "Look East" policy which was adopted after falling out with Western powers.[6]

The north station belonging to Zambia has been in operation since 1976, and has four generators of 153.5 MW each for a total of 614 MW; work to expand this capacity to 1,080 MW is expecting completion in December 2012.[7] Lake Kariba, the reservoir created by the dam, extends for 280 km (174 mi) with a storage capacity of 180 km³.

Choice of location[edit]

Zambezi river basin

The Kariba Dam project was proposed and implemented by the Government of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, or Central African Federation (CAF). The CAF was a semi-independent state within the Commonwealth in southern Africa that existed from 1953 to the end of 1963, comprising the former self-governing British colonies of Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia and the former British protectorate of Nyasaland. Northern Rhodesia had decided earlier in 1953 (before the Federation was founded) to build a dam within its territory, on the Kafue River, a major tributary of the Zambezi. It would have been closer to Zambia's Copperbelt which was in need of more power. This would have been a cheaper and less grandiose project, with a smaller environmental impact. Southern Rhodesia, the richest of the three, objected to a Kafue dam and insisted that the dam be sited instead at Kariba. Also, the capacity of the Kafue dam was much lower than that at Kariba.[8] The Kariba Dam is now owned and operated by the Zambezi River Authority, which is jointly and equally owned by Zimbabwe and Zambia.[9]

Since Zambia's independence, two dams have been built on the Kafue River: the Kafue Gorge Dam and the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam.

Environmental impacts[edit]

Population displacement and resettlement[edit]

The dam under construction in the 1950s, showing the dangers faced by the workers.

Several thousand large animals threatened by the rising water were rescued by Operation Noah.

The creation of the reservoir forced resettlement of about 57,000 Tonga people living along the Zambezi in both Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.[10] From "The Shadow of The Dam", a first-hand account written by David Howarth in the 1960s, referring to the situation in Northern Rhodesia:- "Everything that a government can do on a meagre budget is being done. Demonstration gardens have been planted, to try to teach the Tonga more sensible methods of agriculture, and to try to find cash crops which they can grow. The hilly land has been plowed in ridge contours to guard against erosion. In Sinazongwe, an irrigated garden has grown a prodigious crop of pawpaws, bananas, oranges, lemons, and vegetables, and shown that the remains of the valley could be made prolific if only money could be found for irrigation. Cooperative markets have been organized, and Tonga are being taught to run them. Enterprising Tonga have been given loans to set themselves up as farmers. More schools have been built than the Tonga ever had before, and most of the Tonga are now within reach of dispensaries and hospitals."[11]

There are many different perspectives on how much resettlement aid was given to the displaced tribe. According to anthropologist Thayer Scudder, who has studied these communities since the late 1950s, "Today, most are still 'development refugees.' Many live in less-productive, problem-prone areas, some of which have been so seriously degraded within the last generation that they resemble lands on the edge of the Sahara Desert."[12]

A 2005 book, "Deep Water" by Jacques Leslie focused on the plight of the people resettled by the dam, and found the situation little changed. Kariba remains the worst dam-resettlement disaster in African history.[13]

Basilwizi Trust[edit]

The dam as seen from Zimbabwe.

In a quest to restore their lives and find justice, the Tonga formed their own advocacy group in 2000, the Basilwizi Trust.[14]

River ecology[edit]

The Kariba Dam controls 90% of the total runoff of the Zambezi River, thus changing the downstream ecology dramatically.

Wildlife rescue[edit]

From 1960 to 1961, 'Operation Noah' captured and removed around 6,000 large animals and numerous small ones threatened by the lake's rising waters.

Recent activity[edit]

On the 6th of February 2008, the BBC reported that heavy rain might lead to a release of water from the dam, which would force 50,000 people downstream to evacuate.[15] Rising levels led to the opening of the floodgates in March 2010, requiring the evacuation of 130,000 people who lived in the floodplain, and causing concerns that flooding may spread to nearby areas.[16]

In March 2014 at a Zambezi River Authority organized conference, engineers warned that the foundations of the dam had weakened and there was a possibility of dam failure unless repairs were made.[17]

Etymology[edit]

The name Kariba is thought to be a corruption of the Shona word for a trap. Kariva is a little trap and it is believed when those who wished to construct the dam wall wanted to explain the nature of the project to the locals they emphasised that they wanted to build a little water trap-Kariva. However, the complex pronunciation of the 'v' in Kariva saw the Western constructors produce a sound much like a 'b' hence the creation of the word Kariba.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kariba Dam". Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  2. ^ a b Spurwing facts[dead link]
  3. ^ Indictment: Power & Politics in the Construction Industry, David Morrell, Faber & Faber, 1987, ISBN 978-0-571-14985-8
  4. ^ "Hydroelectric Power Plants in Southern Africa". Power Plants Around the World Photo Gallery. Industry Cards. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Kariba Dam, Zambia and Zimbabwe; Final Report: November 2000". World Commission on Dams. 2000. p. VI. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  6. ^ 'No talks with the West' - Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Mail,10 May 2013
  7. ^ "DBSA provides $105m for Zambia hydropower expansion". Cramer Media's Engineering News. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  8. ^ "Kariba Dam, Zambia and Zimbabwe; Final Report: November 2000". World Commission on Dams. 2000. p. 9. Retrieved 2010-11-17. 
  9. ^ "Legal Status". Zambezi River Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-23. 
  10. ^ Terminski, Bogumil (2013). "Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges". Indiana University. 
  11. ^ Howarth, David, The shadow of the dam, Collins, 1961
  12. ^ "Pipe Dreams: Can the Zambezi River supply the region's water needs?". Cultural Survival Quarterly. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  13. ^ "When Elephants Fight". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  14. ^ "Basilwizi: Promoting Development in the Zambezi Valley". Basilwizi. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  15. ^ Floodgates to open in Mozambique
  16. ^ Zambia opens dam to alleviate flooding
  17. ^ IRIN (9 April 2014). "Kariba Dam and Zim disaster preparedness". New Zimbabwe. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 

External links[edit]