Karim Alrawi

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Karim Alrawi
Karim Alrawi Writers Fest. 2010.jpg
Reading from a work in progress at the Vancouver International Writer's Festival 2010
Born Alexandria, Egypt
Occupation Writer, playwright
Nationality Canadian, British, Egyptian
Genres Literary Fiction, Children's fiction, Plays
Subjects Middle East; Contemporary England & North America; Identity Politics; Racism
Literary movement Post-colonial, Realism, Post-modern
Notable work(s) Migrations, Child in the Heart, Promised Land, The Unbroken Heart, Deep Cut, Madinat al-Salam

www.karimalrawi.com

Karim Alrawi (Arabic كريم الراوي; born September 9, 1958) is a writer born in Alexandria, Egypt. His family emigrated to England then to Canada. Alrawi graduated from University College London and the University of Manchester, England. He gained an MFA in creative writing from the University of British Columbia and held a Fellowship in Writing at the University of Iowa, where he was resident writer at its International Writing Program.

In the UK, after his first full length stage play Migrations won the prestigious John Whiting Award he became Literary Manager of the Theatre Royal Stratford East and later Resident Writer at the Royal Court Theatre in Central London. In 1988 he moved to Egypt and taught in the theatre department of the American University in Cairo. In 1990 his plays were banned by the Egyptian state censor.[1][2] Three years later he was arrested and detained for interrogation by Egyptian State Security about his writings and for his work with the Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights (EOHR).[3] He later moved to the United States where he was Writer in Residence at Meadow Brook Theatre (MBT) in Michigan. He was Editor in Chief of ARABICA magazine,[4] the leading nationally distributed Arab-American publication[5] with a certified readership of over 100,000 readers.[6] During an almost ten-year hiatus from creative writing, Alrawi worked for aid and development agencies including the Canadian Institute for Media, Policy and Civil Society, IMPACS, where he was Director of International Programs, later as executive director of the US-Arab Economic Forum[7] and the World Bank where he was Communications Advisor and Manager of External Affairs for the Middle East and North Africa working with civil society organizations and the media.[8]

In January 2011, Alrawi returned to Egypt to join in Egypt's Revolution,[9] the uprising against the Mubarak dictatorship.[10] He participated in civil disobedience actions against the regime was arrested and released. During and after the fall of the Mubarak regime, he worked with the EOHR[11] to coordinate with foreign media reporting on what was happening, as well as to compile corruption files on former members of the Egyptian government for submission to the new state prosecutors office. He currently divides his time between Canada and Egypt.[12]

Awards[edit]

Alrawi's fiction, plays and productions have received several awards including:

His children's book The Girl Who Lost Her Smile was winner of Parents Magazine Gold Award 2002 and was a finalist for the Kentucky Bluegrass Book Award (Kentucky Students' Choice) 2002.[13]

His picture book The Mouse Who Saved Egypt was listed for the People's Prize in the UK.

He has received writer's awards from the Arts Council of Great Britain and from the Canada Council for the Arts.

British plays[edit]

Karim Alrawi with Joint Stock receives Edinburgh Fringe First Award 1985, Edinburgh, Scotland

Alrawi's first full length play Migrations was produced at the Theatre Royal Stratford East and his second play A Colder Climate was produced at the Royal Court Theatre in Central London. It was followed by three plays, Fire in the Lake, A Child in the Heart and Promised Land for Joint Stock Theatre, then one of Britain's major touring companies.[14] All three plays are emotionally intense and provoked considerable controversy at the time of performance.[15][16] As Carol Woddis noted about Child in the Heart, "this almost messianic piece about the desperate pain of loss of roots and, in the truly biblical sense, tribal identity, refuses to let its audience off the hook."[17] Fire in the Lake was awarded an Edinburgh Fringe First Award at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Crossing the Water a play about the British in Egypt and the Suez War was given a stage reading at the ICA in London before being produced at the American University in Cairo's Jamil Center despite a banning order by the Egyptian state censor.[18]

Alrawi's play Blind Edge, produced by the Old Vic Theatre, was staged at the Commonwealth Institute in London as part of the Festival of Asia, while his play Aliens won the Festival of Asia & Capital Radio's National Playwriting Award.[19]

While in England, Alrawi wrote plays for The Old Red Lion Theatre, Soho Theatre, M6 Theatre, Half Moon Theatre, Newcastle Playhouse, the Old Vic Theatre, London, and the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield.[20]

Arabic plays[edit]

In Egypt, Alrawi taught at the theatre department of the American University in Cairo (AUC).[21] His first serious run-in with the state censor was when his play Crossing the Water was banned and he was summoned to give an account of himself to the censor's office.[22] Later that year, as a response to the censor, he adapted The Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov, setting it in contemporary Egypt. It was staged at the Wallace Theatre of AUC in central Cairo.[23] Also, Alrawi wrote four stage plays in Arabic two of which were staged at the Wallace Theatre.[18] Madinate el Salam (City of Peace) is a retelling of the life of the Sufi poet Mansour al-Hallaj who was executed in tenth century Baghdad on charges of heresy. The play was produced twice, both times after being refused a license by the state censor that led to threats of arrest of Alrawi by state security. The second produced play, Al-Bayt al Mahgour (The Abandoned House) was about sexual exploitation and its roots in Egypt's history of class privilege. The production of the plays, despite being denied rehearsal and production licenses by the state censor, was a contributory cause to Alrawi's later arrest and interrogation.[24]

Autobis al Intikhabat (The Election Bus), a satire on the Egyptian electoral system and Mudun Gha'iba (Absent Cities) about the destruction of Arab cities by war were two full-length plays that were to be produced with a cast of students from AUC. Alrawi and his actors were denied access to the Wallace theatre during the final days of rehearsals resulting in cancellation of the performances.

Arrest and detention[edit]

Alrawi was active for several years in the EOHR, monitoring censorship, and as a spokesperson for the organization, working closely with the foreign media to report on human rights abuses during the Mubarak era.[25][26][27] He compiled accounts of human rights violations alongside his colleague Hisham Mubarak[28] and accompanied foreign journalists to restricted areas to report on security clampdowns, particularly in Upper Egypt and on sectarian conflict in Egyptian cities and in the countryside. He fundraised for the EOHR and compiled accounts of how censorship and blasphemy laws were being enforced in Egypt.[29]

Alrawi's defence of the assassinated writer Farag Foda led to al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, responsible for Foda's murder,[30] issuing a fatwa against Alrawi claiming that "defence of an apostate is proof of apostasy."[31] The fatwa was subsequently lifted after the intervention of the EOHR.

When Nasr Abu Zeid, associate professor at Cairo University, was arraigned before a court in Cairo accused of blasphemy Alrawi spoke and wrote in his defence.[32] Later that year, while working with the EOHR to set up a theatre company to tour plays on human rights themes to towns and villages outside Cairo, and after over three years of conflict with the state censor's office over the staging of his own plays, Alrawi was arrested by State Security officers and taken for interrogation. He was held in the notorious Gaber Ibn Hayyan detention and torture center in Giza and interrogated about his writings and activities for the EOHR.[3]

After his release, Alrawi wrote about his experience in international publications and took the lead to remove and replace Mursi Saad El-Din, a longtime state security appointee, as president of Egyptian PEN (the local branch of the international writer's organization). After serving for nine months, Alrawi accepted a Fulbright scholarship to Pennsylvania State University and arranged the transition of the presidency to the novelist Gamal El-Ghitani.

North American plays[edit]

Karim Alrawi receives Canadian National Playwriting Award 1999 from John Tennant, Canadian Consul, MI, USA

Karim Alrawi was resident writer at Iowa State University, Pennsylvania State University, The Oregon Shakespeare Festival, Oakland University and at Meadow Brook Theatre (MBT) in Michigan. He taught playwriting at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, Canada.

The Unbroken Heart a play based on the life of the blues singer Ethel Waters was first performed at the Fisher Theatre in Iowa before touring nationally.[33][34] His plays for MBT included A Gift of Glory,[35] about the Mexican artist Diego Rivera and the Ford family; Chagall's Arabian Nights,[36] a story of Marc Chagall's painting of the Arabian Nights and Killing Time,[37] a play about physician assisted suicide. He also wrote plays that toured local schools and ran theatre workshops for disadvantaged kids in South-East Michigan.[38]

His play Sarajevo about the Bosnian war was given a workshop production at MBT and the Shenandoah Arts Theatre. The play Sugar Candy was given a staged reading at Mixed Blood Theatre in Minneapolis.

Patagonia[39] a play about torture and resistance was first performed by Ruby Slippers Theatre in Vancouver, Canada. Across The Morne a play for two actors and dogs, set in Newfoundland, was given a staged reading at the Playwrights' Theatre Centre, Vancouver, Canada.

Deep Cut, a play set on the American Gulf Islands about cultural conflict and political and personal expediency, was staged at La MaMa ETC[40] in New York as well as by Golden Thread Theatre in San Francisco and Washington, DC.[41]

Children's fiction[edit]

Alrawi has written two children's picture books; The Girl Who Lost Her Smile and The Mouse Who Saved Egypt.

The Girl Who Lost Her Smile was staged and performed as a children's play in the UK by Tutti Frutti Theatre and York Theatre Royal,[42] and in the USA by Golden Thread Theatre.

The Mouse Who Saved Egypt was edited on a rooftop overlooking Tahrir Square in Cairo, during the Egyptian revolution.[43]

Other productions[edit]

Karim Alrawi receives Free Press Theatre Excellence Award, 2000, MI, USA

Karim Alrawi has written for BBC radio and television, as well as for Channel Four television in the UK.

Common themes[edit]

El Lozy describes Alrawi as a radical playwright influenced by postmodernism. He summarizes the plays in an extreme reading, "Violence is the degree of contemporary Third World life: one is deported from the West Bank, sold to an adoption agency in Ethiopia, sent to England as a mail-order bride, sexually mutilated in Cairo, tortured in Beijing, ethnically-cleansed in Bosnia, and bombed back to the stone age in Baghdad."[44] Later in the same article, El Lozy says, "we are drawn deeply and provocatively into journeys of self-examination and self-discovery where the most intricate and controversial conflicts of our times are dramatized at the level of interpersonal human relationships ... the individual himself/herself is not divorced from history." David Williams calls Alrawi a subversive writer whose early work was the culmination of a strand of Joint Stock Theatre's productions where diaspora was interrogated, not so much as place but as process. He describes Alrawi as a writer who works to uncover "difference as a pivotal conflict in his characters' lives." According to Williams, for Alrawi, "the absence of place is what defines diaspora."[45] Carlson, in a detailed analysis of the plays, concludes that it is his "ability to effectively situate and reconstruct the individual in a social and cultural context that has remained an enduring quality of the work of Alrawi."[46]

In a study of British Epic theatre, Reinelt describes Alrawi's work as post-Brechtian, and finds strong parallels between Alrawi’s plays and those of contemporary feminist writers. She states that Karim Alrawi “writes emotionally charged material that comes out of process-oriented workshops and privileges character over plot, often stressing characters’ personal resolutions … issues of identity, family, and a personal past make for an intense, almost psychoanalytic experience in his plays. As with some feminist work, the personal becomes the political.”[47] While Rashad Rida, in a comparative study of Arab-American writers, recognizes that Alrawi's plays represent a break with Arab writers at home and of the diaspora in form and content, reinterpreting concepts of cultural authenticity and grappling with issues of personal integrity in ways that are integral to the plays, it is the degree of humour in many of them that gives relief to the audience, as well as strength to the characters.[48]

Activism in the aftermath of 9/11[edit]

While on a scholarship to Pennsylvania State University, Alrawi researched and published studies on censorship in the Middle East,[49] as well as studies on Middle Eastern theatre.[50] Applying and seeking to extend the ideas of Harold Innis and Marshall Mcluhan, Alrawi developed a study on the possible social and political effects of new communications technology leading to social change in the Middle East. These ideas were developed further during his residency at Oakland University in Michigan where he presented them to students at the Honours College in a discussion group on the possible social effects of the Internet as part of the Festival of the Middle East held at the university campus in 2000.[51]

When, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, Alrawi gave testimony before the US Congress,[52] he drew heavily on ideas from his research to argue for funding for training journalists in new media in the Middle East. Later, he was to make a similar case to senior officials at the US State Department, and USAID,[53] as well as directly to Pierre Pettigrew the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs (2004–2006) whom he accompanied to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) conference on Good Governance in the Arab World[54] as part of the official Canadian government delegation. Alrawi was a member of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Programme on Governance in the Arab Region (POGAR, 1999–2005).[55][56]

In 2003, Alrawi with two colleagues, set up the Arab Development and Media Network (ADAM Network), a not-for-profit company registered in Beirut, Lebanon. The company provided support and training in the use of new media, at no charge, to journalists from the Middle East and North Africa. The project received funding from aid agencies in the USA, Canada and Europe as well as individual donations. Most of the training was conducted in association with partner organizations, such as the EOHR in Egypt, and civil society and human rights organizations in Lebanon, Jordan, Tunisia, Bahrain, Yemen, and Morocco.[57] In Oman, Syria, Iraq,[58][59] and Algeria training was conducted through local organizations with funding obtained by ADAM Network.[60] A major focus of the training was media ethics, computer skills and Internet literacy.[61] The early success of the training programs encouraged several international organizations to implement and support similar training projects contributing to a rapid increase in computer literacy among journalists in the region.[53] ADAM Network was dissolved in 2010 after Alrawi returned to writing full-time.

Karim Alrawi was a participant in the Athens conference on an Independent Media in Iraq that drafted proposals for new media laws for the country.[62][63][64]

He supervised media and conflict sensitive reporting projects in Nepal during the Nepalese civil war (1996–2006), conflict resolution training for media in South-East Asia[65] and supervised Canadian funded projects to support women-managed community radio stations and a newspaper in Afghanistan.[66]

With the start of the Egyptian revolution on January 25, 2011, Alrawi returned to Egypt.[67][68][69]

New Work[edit]

Alrawi's new novel Book of Sands will be published by HarperCollins in Spring 2015.

The novel won the inaugural HarperCollins Best New Fiction Prize[70]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Pop Goes the Censor", Writer's Blog, June 3, 2011, http://www.karimalrawi.com/writer/Writers_Blog/Entries/2011/6/3_Pop_goes_the_Censor.html
  2. ^ "The still, small voice within Egypt" Index on Censorship, London, February 1992
  3. ^ a b "Fear of the Word." Media Guardian, The Guardian newspaper, London, December 20, 1993
  4. ^ Lama Bakri, "Arab-American magazine draws national readership", Detroit News, March 23, 2000, ISSN 1055-2715
  5. ^ Jim Dulzo, "Arabica magazine finds lucrative niche", Detroit News, December 20, 2000, ISSN 1055-2715
  6. ^ "Arabica magazine Subscriber Profile", John Zogby International, client report, October 2000
  7. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Interview on Change in Saudi Arabia", Oil & Gas Financial Journal, volume 2, issue 7, September 1, 2005
  8. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Impunity and Corruption", Writer's Blog, June 11, 2011, http://www.karimalrawi.com/writer/Writers_Blog/Entries/2011/6/11_World_Bank_%26_Egypt__Impunity_%26_Corruption.html
  9. ^ Karim Alrawi, "From Tahrir Square," Writer's Blog, March 2011, http://www.karimalrawi.com/writer/Writers_Blog/Entries/2011/3/8_After_the_Revolution.html
  10. ^ Patrick Martin, “Defying expectations, Mubarak refuses to step down”, Globe and Mail, Canada, February 10, 2011
  11. ^ Patrick Martin, "After the trial, the battle begins", Globe and Mail, Canada, August 3, 2011
  12. ^ Biographical information from, http://www.karimalrawi.com/writer/Life_%26_Media/Life_%26_Media.html
  13. ^ Author Awards, Tradewind Books, http://tradewindbooks.com/author-biography&Name=Karim_Alrawi
  14. ^ Ritchie, R. (ed), "The Joint Stock Book: Making of a Theatre Collective," Methuen, London, 1987, ISBN 0-413-41030-7
  15. ^ Joyce Devlin, "Joint Stock: From Colorless Company to Company of Color." Theatre Topics Journal, Johns Hopkins University Press, March 1991, ISSN 1054-8378
  16. ^ Sara Freeman, "Writing the History of an Alternative Theatre Company: Mythology and the Last Years of Joint Stock." Theatre Survey 47:1, American Society for Theatre Research, May 2006, ISSN 0040-5574
  17. ^ Carol Woddis, '"Child in the Heart, play review." City Limits magazine, London, April 21, 1988
  18. ^ a b Walter Eysselinck, "Identity and Anxiety in the Plays of Karim Alrawi." Theatre Workshop Paper, American University in Cairo, 1991
  19. ^ Madhav Sharma, producer and theatre directing credits, http://www.madhavsharma.com/?page_id=63
  20. ^ Karim Alrawi, Guide to Plays, doollee.com, http://www.doollee.com/PlaywrightsA/alrawi-karim.html
  21. ^ Karim Alrawi interview, Dramatists Guild Quarterly, Spring 1994, http://www.karimalrawi.com/writer/Interview.html
  22. ^ "No Queens on the Nile." The Guardian newspaper, London, July 27, 1990
  23. ^ "The Three Sisters", American University in Cairo, http://www.aucegypt.edu/huss/pva/theater/archive/Pages/ThreeSisters.aspx
  24. ^ "Kindest regards: you're banned." Index on Censorship, London, February 1992
  25. ^ Basma Abdel Aziz, El Nadim Centre for Psychological Rehabilitation of Victims of Violence and Torture, "Torture in Egypt," Torture Journal, Volume 17, Number 1, 2007, http://www.alnadeem.org/files/torture_in_egypt_0.pdf
  26. ^ “EOHR calls for investigating 900 torture cases,” Daily News, Egypt, June 22, 2011, http://www.thedailynewsegypt.com/eohr-calls-for-investigating-900-torture-cases.html
  27. ^ Fouad Ajami, "The Sorrows of Egypt", Foreign Affairs, vol 74, issue 5, pp72-88, 09/ 1995, ISSN 0015-7120
  28. ^ Judith Miller, "Hisham Mubarak Dies at 35", The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/1998/01/15/world/hisham-mubarak-dies-at-35-rights-campaigner-in-egypt.html
  29. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Special Report on Egypt," Index on Censorship, London, May/June 1994
  30. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Killed for his enlightened compassion", The Guardian newspaper, London, June 10, 1992
  31. ^ "Tous les Rushdie du monde," L'Express, France, February 17, 1994, http://www.lexpress.fr/informations/tous-les-rushdie-du-monde_597195.html
  32. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Letter from Cairo", New Statesman & Society, London, June 25, 1993
  33. ^ Joe Pollack, "Busy Theatre Calendar", St. Louis Post, Missouri, USA, September 6, 1992
  34. ^ Peter Lennon, "Speaking out in a volatile climate", The Guardian, UK, May 28, 1994
  35. ^ George Bullard, "Play shows Detroit as an art sanctuary", Detroit News, March 6, 1999, ISSN 1055-2715
  36. ^ Celia Wren, "I Dream of Genie", American Theatre magazine, volume 17, issue 4, April 2000, ISSN 8750-3255
  37. ^ Michael Margolin, "Killing Time questions living without quality of life", Detroit News, February 16, 2001, ISSN 1055-2715
  38. ^ Meadow Brook Theatre Archives, Kresge Library, http://library.oakland.edu/information/departments/archives/Meadowbrooktheatre.html
  39. ^ Chris Dafoe, "Sled among top Jessie nominees", Globe and Mail, May 17, 1997
  40. ^ Nelson Pressley, "Deep Cut needs a sharper production", Washington Times, April 19, 1996
  41. ^ Rashad Rida, "From Cultural Authenticity to Social Relevance: The plays of Amin al-Rihanni, Khalil Gibran and Karim Alrawi." Colors of Enchantment, Ed. Sherifa Zuhur American University in Cairo Press, 2010 ISBN 977-424-607-1
  42. ^ Tutti Frutti return with enchanting children's play, York Theatre Royal, http://www.yorktheatreroyal.co.uk/cgi/news/news.cgi?t=template&a=209
  43. ^ Author background, BC Book World, http://www.abcbookworld.com/view_author.php?id=10242
  44. ^ Mahmoud El Lozy, "Identity and Geography in Karim Alrawi’s Promise Land." Alif: Journal of Contemporary Poetics, American University in Cairo Press, 2000
  45. ^ David Williams, "Staging the Dialogics of the Diaspora in Three Joint Stock Plays." ASTR: Performance, Diaspora and the Politics of Home, University of California, Davis, undated
  46. ^ Susan Carlson, "Collaboration, Identity and Cultural Difference: Alrawi’s Theatre of Engagement." Theatre Journal, May 1993, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISSN 0192-2882
  47. ^ Janelle Reinelt, “Is the English Epic Over?” The Theatrical Gamut: notes for a post-Beckettian stage, Ed. Enoch Brater, University of Michigan Press 1995, ISBN 0-472-10583-3
  48. ^ Rashad Rida, "From Cultural Authenticity to Social Relevance: The plays of Amin al-Rihanni, Khalil Gibran and Karim Alrawi." Colors of Enchantment, Ed. Sherifa Zuhur, American University in Cairo Press, 2010 ISBN 977-424-607-1
  49. ^ Censorship: A World Encyclopedia, 4 volumes, Ed. Derek Jones, Routledge 2001, ISBN 1-57958-135-8
  50. ^ The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre, Ed. Colin Chambers, Continuum 2002, ISBN 0-8264-4959-X
  51. ^ Festival of the Middle East, Oakland University, http://www.oakland.edu/view_news.aspx?sid=34&nid=229
  52. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Testimony before the US congress," International Journalist Network, http://ijnet.org/opportunities/internews-middle-east-director-testifies-us-congress
  53. ^ a b Internews newsletter, http://www.internews.org/newsletters/2003_12/win03_arabjournalists.htm
  54. ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Good Governance in the Arab World, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/6/34945764.pdf
  55. ^ United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Programme on Governance in the Arab Region, Evaluation Report http://www.undp-pogar.org/about/docs/evaluation-report-annexes.pdf
  56. ^ United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Good Governance for Development in The Arab Countries Launching Conference, http://www.pogar.org/publications/agfd/deadseaconf/agfd-conf-agenda-e.pdf
  57. ^ Karim Alrawi, "interview," Internews Newsletter, http://www.internews.org/newsletters/2003_12/win03_alrawi.htm
  58. ^ Karim Alrawi Interview, "Politicians threatening Iraq’s press freedom", Daily Times, March 29, 2005, Pakistan, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_29-3-2005_pg4_13
  59. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Media Development (initiative in support of civil society in Iraq)," United Nations Development Programme, July 2004, http://www.iq.undp.org/UploadedFiles/Projects/8f5f4742-6952-4ac1-9775-eb988e0579a3.pdf
  60. ^ Media training, KUNA news agency, http://Users/admin/Desktop/Article1349552-1.doc.html
  61. ^ Arthur Weinreb, "Canadian media could use some help too", Canada Free Press, April 5, 2005, http://www.canadafreepress.com/2005/media040505.htm
  62. ^ Designs for Independent Media in Iraq, Stanhope Centre for Communications Policy Research, http://www.stanhopecentre.org/research/designs/participants.shtml
  63. ^ Karim Alrawi, "Media in the New Iraq", Arab Reform Bulletin, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 2004, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/2008/08/20/media-in-new-iraq/da
  64. ^ Karim Alrawi, "The pluralism and chaos of Iraq’s post-war media", Lebanon Wire, January 26, 2004, http://www.lebanonwire.com/0401/04012621DS.asp
  65. ^ Stephen J. A. Ward, "Journalism and Conflict Resolution", Centre for Journalism Ethics, http://ethics.journalism.wisc.edu/resources/global-media-ethics/journalism-and-conflict-resolution/
  66. ^ Government of Canada, Radio Rabi'ah Balkhi gives women a voice in Afghanistan, http://www.afghanistan.gc.ca/canada-afghanistan/stories-reportages/womenradio-radiofemmes.aspx
  67. ^ Patrick Martin, "As Mubarak departs, questions about what comes next." Globe and Mail, Canada, February 11, 2011; also available online at Wikileaks LK, Sri Lanka, http://wikileaksrilanka.blogspot.com/2011/02/as-mubarak-departs-questions-about-what.html
  68. ^ Patrick Martin, "The people versus Egypt's Hosni Mubarak", Globe and Mail, Canada, August 1, 2011, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/africa-mideast/the-people-versus-egypts-hosni-mubarak/article2116656/page2/
  69. ^ Patrick Martin, "Egypt's latest protest threatens to derail Muslim Brotherhood's ride to power", Globe and Mail, Canada, November 23, 2011, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/egypts-latest-protests-threaten-to-derail-muslim-brotherhoods-ride-to-power/article2246983/
  70. ^ Karim Alrawi wins inaugural Prize for Best New Fiction, "Quill & Quire", November 12, 2013, http://www.quillandquire.com/blog/index.php/awards/karim-alrawi-wins-inaugural-prize-for-best-new-fiction/

External links[edit]