Karl Edward Wagner
|Karl Edward Wagner|
Karl Edward Wagner at writers panel, World Fantasy Conference, Seattle, 1989.
December 12, 1945|
Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
|Died||October 13, 1994(aged 48)|
Karl Edward Wagner (12 December 1945 – 13 October 1994) was an award-winning American writer, poet, editor and publisher of horror, science fiction, and heroic fantasy, who was born in Knoxville, Tennessee and originally trained as a psychiatrist. He wrote numerous dark fantasy and horror stories. As an editor, he created a three-volume set of Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian fiction restored to its original form as written, and edited the long-running and genre-defining Year's Best Horror and Fantasy series. His Carcosa publishing house issued four volumes of the best stories by some of the major figures of the Golden Age pulps. He is possibly best known for his creation of the long-running series of stories featuring Kane, the Mystic Swordsman.
His disillusionment with the medical profession can be seen in the stories "The Fourth Seal" and "Into Whose Hands". He described his world view as nihilistic, anarchistic and absurdist, and claimed, not entirely seriously, to be related to "an opera composer named Richard". Wagner also admired the cinema of Sam Peckinpah, stating "I worship the film The Wild Bunch". 
Wagner was the fourth and youngest child of Aubrey J. Wagner and Dorothea Huber; his father was an official in the Tennessee Valley Authority. Wagner earned a history degree from Kenyon College in 1967, and a psychiatry degree from University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. As noted above, he disliked the medical profession, which he abandoned upon establishing himself as a writer.
Wagner was productive as both a writer and editor/anthologist; see below. His close friends included the writer Manly Wade Wellman, two of whose collections he published under the Carcosa publishing imprint.
Wagner died on October 14, 1994, essentially of the consequences of longterm alcoholism. It was reported in a late 1994 issue of the Newsletter of the Horror Writers of America that Wagner's causes of death were heart failure and liver failure.
Exorcisms and Ecstasies, a final posthumous volume of uncollected stories, miscellany and tributes appeared from small press publisher Fedogan & Bremer in 1997. Night Shade Books has published the complete Kane stories (novels and shorts) in two hardcover volumes.
Published works 
Some of Wagner's work is set in Robert E. Howard's universe (featuring Conan the Barbarian and Bran Mak Morn); he also edited three volumes of Howard's original Conan tales, important to purists for being the first to restore the texts to their originally published form. His three volumes of Echoes of Valor also featured restored versions of pulp-era fantasy stories by authors such as Fritz Leiber, C. L. Moore, Henry Kuttner, and Nictzin Dyalhis. Wagner wrote an unpublished Bran Mak Morn novel, Queen of the Night, which was originally scheduled to appear from Zebra books in 1978 and Ace Books in 1980.
Kane, the Mystic Swordsman 
Wagner created his own mystical and immortal pre-historical anti-hero, Kane, whose name and background are based on traditional conceptions of the biblical Cain. A powerful, left-handed warrior-sorceror with red hair and blue eyes which people find it difficult to meet (the Mark of Kane), the character was described by Wagner as one "who could master any situation intellectually, or rip heads off if push came to shove". Kane is an immortal somewhat like the Wandering Jew (or more specifically, Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer, a novel which Wagner cites as a major influence in his essay "The Once and Future Kane") Kane's character also includes elements of Robert E. Howard's Solomon Kane. He is an immortal, cursed to wander the earth until he is destroyed by the violence that he himself has created. He sells his loyalty and sword to the highest bidder. He is, unlike Howard's barbarian Conan, a staggeringly well-read and intelligent man who has traveled his world for centuries and is able to discuss music, poetry, politics, and any number of subjects. He is also amoral, a born killer. The Kane stories are often classified as tales of sword and sorcery (although Wagner disliked the term), which some critics have favourably compared to those of Howard and Michael Moorcock. The character of Kane is considered one of the most memorable and original anti-heroes in heroic fantasy 
Inspired by the sword and sorcery adventures of Fritz Leiber's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser, and Robert E. Howard's mighty-thewed barbarian Conan the Cimmerian, Wagner set about creating his own fantasy character while still attending medical school. The result was initially published as a paperback original in 1970 by West Coast porn imprint Powell Publications, with an inappropriately lurid cover. The text of the novel was altered by an unknown copyeditor to conform with the ill-suited cover art.
After publishing a pseudonymous porn novel with a small New York imprint, Wagner relinquished his chance to become a doctor and instead decided to turn to writing full time. In 1973, Warner Paperback library published Death Angel's Shadow, which collected the three original Kane novellas. He also began selling his stories and poems regularly to the growing small press magazine market. Several tales appeared in Gary Hoppenstand's Midnight Sunn, a magazine initially devoted to Kane and the new school of epic fantasy writers. This was followed by publication of the first Kane novel, Bloodstone, in 1975. Warner Books commissioned a cover painting by the legendary Frank Frazetta (a ploy which a decade previously had helped revive the Conan franchise) and Wagner's writing career took off.
After a novel featuring Howard's Pictish hero Bran Mak Morn, Wagner's next Kane book was Dark Crusade, (1976) which was again graced with a superb Frazetta cover. A Kane story published elsewhere, "Two Suns Setting", won the 1977 British Fantasy Award and was also a World Fantasy Award nominee. Wagner published other Kane stories in magazines such as Chacal, Whispers and Escape! during 1977. Gerald W. Page, then editor of DAW Books Year's Best Fantasy and Horror Stories began to reprint Kane tales in the anthology series. Night Winds, a collection of six previously published Kane tales (again with a Frazetta cover) followed in (Warner Books,1978). The publisher also reissued all previous Kane books including a new edition of Darkness Weaves which reinstated the author's preferred text.
The Book of Kane was the last published volume of Kane material (1985) until Night Shade Books' omnibus editions of novels and tales.
A proposed fourth Kane novel, In the Wake of the Night, was never completed, although an excerpt did turn up in a World Fantasy Convention souvenir book in 1981; this also appears in the collection Midnight Sun (2003).
In 2004, it was reported that film producer Lauren Moews had "acquired DEATH ANGEL'S SHADOW, and will produce a film based upon "Reflections for the Winter of My Soul," which is the first of three short stories comprising DEATH ANGEL'S SHADOW. The other two short stories, "Cold Light" and "Mirage," are waiting in the wings to be developed into a possible KANE franchise for Tonic Films."  As of 2011 the movie has not entered production.
Other writings 
Besides the Kane books, Wagner wrote contemporary horror stories (some of which, like "At First Just Ghostly", also feature Kane). These were collected in the books In a Lonely Place (1983), Why Not You and I? (1987) and the posthumous Exorcisms and Ecstasies (1997). They range from the highly literate and allusive (such as "The River of Night's Dreaming", which refers to Richard O'Brien's The Rocky Horror Show and the myth of Carcosa used in the work of Ambrose Bierce and Robert W. Chambers), to the pulpy and parodic (such as "Plan Ten from Inner Space", a crazed homage to Edward D. Wood, Jr.'s magnum opus Plan 9 from Outer Space). His later stories, such as "But You'll Never Follow Me" and "Silted In", were described by Ramsey Campbell as tormented and deeply personal; some deal explicitly with drug addiction (e.g. "More Sinned Against") and sexual subjects, including repression (e.g. "Brushed Away") and transsexualism (e.g. "Lacunae").
With his friends Jim Groce and David Drake, who were concerned that Arkham House would cease publication after the death of its founder, August Derleth, Wagner formed the Carcosa publishing house in North Carolina in 1973 to preserve the work of their favorite pulp horror writers in hard covers. Carcosa Press put out four substantial volumes of pulp horror tales: Murgunstrumm and Others by Hugh B. Cave, Far Lands, Other Days by E. Hoffmann Price, Worse Things Waiting and Lonely Vigils, both by Manly Wade Wellman. All books were edited by Wagner and profusely illustrated. A fifth collection was planned, Death Stalks the Night, by Hugh B. Cave; Lee Brown Coye was working on illustrating it when he died, causing Carcosa to abandon the project. The book was eventually published by Fedogan & Bremer. Wagner later acted as the literary agent for Manly Wade Wellman's estate.
The illustrator of Murgunstrumm and Worse Things Waiting was the noted Weird Tales artist Lee Brown Coye. Coye's macabre designs, incorporating mysterious lattices of twigs, were the inspiration for Wagner's British Fantasy Award-winning story "Sticks".
A connoisseur of rare horror gems, Wagner perspicaciously edited many horror and fantasy anthologies; perhaps his greatest achievement in this area was the annual anthology series The Year's Best Horror Stories (DAW Books), which he edited for fourteen years from volume VIII (1980) until volume XXII (1994). The series was canceled after Wagner's death. However, while the original editions were paperback originals, Underwood-Miller preserved the series in a set of three limited edition hardcovers.
Wagner was a frequent visitor to London to attend fantasy and horror conventions. Though he continued to edit, producing three volumes of the heroic fantasy anthology Echoes of Valor for Tor Books in the late eighties and early nineties, and published a steady stream of short stories (most of which were apparently written some years earlier), his most productive days were over. In the story "The Gothic Touch", Kane teams up with the albino warrior-sorceror Elric in a tribute anthology honouring the fiction of Michael Moorcock (Tales of the White Wolf).
Wagner wrote several unproduced screenplays and treatments including a movie script for Conan III for film producer Dino De Laurentis and a TV script based on Robert E. Howards "The Horror on the Mound" (for Tales from the Darkside).
Audio, television and comics adaptations 
Several Wagner works were adapted for audio cassette readings, including:
- "Sticks" Adapted by Meatball Fulton. Directed by Bill Raymond. Fort Edward, NY: ZBS Foundation, 1984. (A dramatic reading of Wagner's story plus two stories by Craig Strete). This recording was re-issued by ZBZ Foundation on audio CD in 1998, combined with a story by Meatball Fulton and Tom Lopez.
- "Sticks" Unabridged reading by Patrick Macnee on Dove Audo four-cassette anthology The Greatest Horror of the 20th Century, ed. Martin Greenberg. LA: New Star Publishing, 1998.
- Night Winds. A Kane audio collection containing three stories on two cassettes; narrated by Roger Zelazny. Santa Fe, NM: Sunset Productions, 1993.
- Raven's Eyrie. A Kane story on two audio cassettes; narrated by Roger Zelazny. Santa Fe, NM: Sunset Productions, 1993.
- In the mid-1980s, "Sticks" received an audio adaptation on the radio series The Cabinet of Dr. Fritz.
Graphic novels 
Wagner was involved with several comics ventures. His Kane story "In the Lair of Yslsl" (which was later incorporated into the Kane novel Dark Crusade) was adapted by Bill Whitcomb and Steve Vance, and illustratedby Vance, Wes Smith and Bill Black for the graphic medium in Dark Phantasms 1, Summer 1976. In 1993 Wagner co-wrote the graphic novel Tell Me Dark with John Ney Reiber and Kent Williams, contributing original characters and situations. It was published by DC Comics in both hardcover and trade paperback.
At the time of his death, he had just finished compiling Exorcisms and Ecstasies, and had started working on two novels - The Fourth Seal and Tell Me, Dark, the latter based on the graphic novel he disowned.
- In a Lonely Place (1983)
- Why Not You and I? (1987)
- Unthreatened by the Morning Light (1989) (Issue 2 of Author's Choice Monthly - a series published by Pulphouse Publishing. It was issued in both a limited signed hardcover of 350 copies (50 deluxe leatherbound signed and numbered 1-50; 300 limited clothbound with d.j., signed and numbered 1-300), and an unlimited perfectbound paper edition. There was also five deluxe Publisher's Copies and 25 Limited Publisher's copies).
- Exorcisms and Ecstasies (1997)
- Masters of the Weird Tale: Karl Edward Wagner (Centipede Press, 2011)
- Where the Summer Ends (Centipede Press, 2012)
- Walk on the Wild Side (Centipede Press, 2012)
- The Other Woman as by "Kent Allard". NY: Carlyle Communications/The Orpheus Series, 1973. Erotic novel.
- Killer (written with David Drake, 1985)
Poetry collections 
- Songs of the Damned. Knoxvxille, TN: Village Printers/Silver Eel Press, 1981. Edited by Vern Clark and Bob Barger. Poetry chapbook issued in a 250-copy trade edition and a 50-copy signed edition. Contains nine poems.
- Red Harvest. Chapel Hill, NC: Sidecar Preservation Society, 2002. Edited by Scott F. Wyatt. Restored and corrected edition of Songs of the Damned, containing fourteen poems and with an Introduction, "The Mark of Cain" by Stephen Jones who also illustrates the volume. Also includes several pages of bibliographic updates and corrections to the bibliography of Wagner's work first published in Exorcisms and Ecstasies. Limited to 200 numbered copies in chapbook format, and a 20-copy handbound hardcover edition.
Short stories 
- Darkness Weaves (novel) (published in abridged and altered form 1970 as Darkness Weaves with Many Shades; restored text 1978)
- Death Angel's Shadow (collection) (1973)
- Bloodstone (novel) (1975)
- Dark Crusade (novel) (1976)
- Night Winds (collection) (1978)
- The Book of Kane (collection) (1985)
- Gods in Darkness (omnibus collection of the three novels) (2002). Issued as a 1200 copy trade edition and also as a 150 copy edition signed by the artist with an additional illustration.
- Midnight Sun: The Complete Stories of Kane (collection) (2003). Introduction "Raising Kane" by Stephen Jones.
Robert E. Howard pastiches 
- Legion from the Shadows (Bran Mak Morn novel) (1976)
- The Road of Kings (Conan novel) (1979)
Collections edited 
- Far Lands, Other Days by E. Hoffmann Price (1975)
- Murgunstrumm and Others, by Hugh B. Cave (1977)
- Worse Things Waiting, by Manly Wade Wellman (1973)
- Lonely Vigils by Manly Wade Wellman (1981)
- The Valley So Low: Southern Mountain Stories by Manly Wade Wellman (1987)
- John the Balladeer by Manly Wade Wellman (1988)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, VIII (1980)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, IX (1981)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, X (1982)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XI (1983)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XII (1984)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XIII (1985)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XIV (1986)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XV (1987)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XVI (1988)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XVII (1989)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XVIII (1990)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XIX (1991)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XX (1992)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XXI (1993)
- The Year's Best Horror Stories, XXII (1994)
- Echoes of Valor (Sword and Sorcery Anthologies)
- Black Prometheus: A Critical Study of Karl Edward Wagner, ed. Benjamin Szumskyj (Gothic Press 2007; ISBN 0-913045-14-4)
- Interview with Horror magazine, October 1994.
- Mike Ashley, "Wagner, Karl Edward" in St. James Guide To Fantasy Writers, edited by David Pringle. St. James Press, 1996, p. 583-4 .
- Stephen Jones, "Raising Kane", in Midnight Sun, 2002, p. 4.
- The HWA Newsletter 5, Issue 6 Nov/Dec 1994, p. 9
- Bibliography in Karl Edward Wagner, Exorcisms and Ecstasies", Minneapolis: Fedogan and Bremer, 1997, p. 433, Item A17.
- Karl Edward Wagner, "The Once and Future Kane" in Wagner, Midnight Sun", San Francisco: Night Shade Books, 2003, pp 431-37.
- . Stephen Jones, "Raising Kane" in Midnight Sun (2003), p. 1.
- Stephen Jones, "Raising Kane" in Midnight Sun (2003), p. 2.
- Stephen Jones, "The Mark of Kane", introduction to Red Harvest, Chapel Hill, NC: Sidecar Presevration Society, 2002, p.4
- Ramsey Campbell, "Friends Die", tribute essay in Exorcisms and Ecstasies (1997).
- Stephen Jones, "Raising Kane", in Midnight Sun, 2002, p. 3.
- Bibliography in Exorcisms and Ecstasies (1997) p. 453.
- IMDB entry for "The Hunger"
- Bibliography, in Exorcisms and Ecstasies, p. 453.
- Jacket bio, Karl Edward Wagner, Exorcisms and Ecstasies, Minneapolis: Fedogan and Bremer, 1997.
- Identified in Scott F. Wyatt and Stephen Jones, "Karl Edward Wagner: A Working Bibliography of English Language First Editions", in Karl Edward Wagner, Exorcisms and Ecstasies" (1997), p. 429
- Karl Edward Wagner at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Remembrance of Karl Edward Wagner
- Karl Edward Wagner
- East of Eden Karl Edward Wagner website
- John Mayer's memoir of his friendship with Karl Edward Wagner