Karl F. Sundman

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Karl Frithiof Sundman (28 October 1873, Kaskinen – 28 September 1949, Helsinki)[1] was a Finnish mathematician who used analytic methods to prove the existence of a convergent infinite series solution to the three-body problem in 1906 and 1909.[2][3] He also published a paper on regularization methods in mechanics in 1912.

In 1991 Sundman's solution was generalized to the case of n > 3 bodies by Qiudong Wang.[4]

Awards, recognition[edit]

Sundman was awarded the Pontécoulant prize by the French Academy of Science in 1913 for this work.[1] In 1947, Sundman was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The crater Sundman on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 1424 Sundmania.


  1. ^ a b Karl Frithiof Sundman bio
  2. ^ K. Sundman (1912). "Memoire sur le probleme des trois corps". Acta Mathematica 36: 105–179. doi:10.1007/BF02422379. 
  3. ^ Thomas A. Hockey; et al. (Sep 18, 2007). Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer. p. 1111. ISBN 0387304002. 
  4. ^ The global solution of the n-body problem (Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (ISSN 0923-2958), vol. 50, no. 1, 1991, p. 73-88., URI retrieved on 2007-05-05)
  • Diacu, F.: The solution of the n-body Problem, The Mathematical Intelligencer, 1996, 18, p. 66–70
  • G Järnefelt, "Karl Fridhiof Sundman", Soc. Sci. Fenn. Arsbok 30 (2) (1953), 1-13.
  • G Järnefelt, "Karl F Sundman in Memoriam", Acta Mathematica 83 (1950), i-vi.

External links[edit]