He studied medicine at the Universities of Vienna and Prague, afterwards working as a prosector in Vienna under Joseph Hyrtl (1810-1894). In 1856 he became a professor at the Josephinum, later serving as director of the second institute of anatomy at the University of Vienna (1870-74). In 1874 he succeeded Hyrtl as director of the first institute of anatomy. With Christian August Voigt (1808-1890), he was tasked with planning for construction of a new Viennese anatomical institute.
- Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Haut, 1861 - later translated into English as "The anatomy and physiology of the skin" (1943).
- Wachsthum des menschlichen Skeletes mit Bezug auf den Riesen, 1872 - Growth of the human skeleton with respect to gigantism.
- Lehrbuch der systematischen und topographischen Anatomie, 1882 - Textbook of systematic and topographical anatomy.
- Anatomie der äusseren Formen des menschlichen Körpers, 1884 - Anatomy of the external forms of the human body.
- Langer's arch: Also known as the "pectorodorsalis muscle" or as the "axillary arch muscle".
- Langer lines: Cleavage lines that correspond to the alignment of collagen fibers within the dermis.
- Biography @ Deutsche Biographie