Karl Philipp von Wrede

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Karl Philipp Wrede

Karl (or Carl) Philipp Josef Wrede, Freiherr von Wrede, 1st Fürst[1] von Wrede (German: [ˈvʀeːdə]; 29 April 1767 – 12 December 1838), Bavarian field-marshal.

Family[edit]

Von Wrede was born at Heidelberg, the youngest of three children of Ferdinand Josef Wrede (1722 – 1793), created in 1791 1st Freiherr von Wrede, and wife, married on 21 March 1746, Anna Katharina Jünger (1729 – 1804), by whom he had two more children: Luise, Freiin von Wrede (23 September 1748 - 9 February 1794), married to Philipp, Freiherr von Horn (? - 1834); and Georg, Freiherr von Wrede (8 December 1765 - 3 April 1843), married on 17 January 1808 to Julie Zarka de Lukafalva (1781 - Osen, 1 August 1847), by whom he had issue.[2][3]

Early career[edit]

He was educated for the career of a civil official under the Electorate of the Palatinate government, but on the outbreak of the campaign of 1799 he raised a volunteer corps in the Palatinate and was made its colonel. This corps excited the mirth of the well-drilled Austrians with whom it served, but its colonel soon brought it into a good condition, and it distinguished itself during Kray's retreat on Ulm. At the Battle of Hohenlinden (1800) Wrede commanded one of the Palatinate infantry brigades with credit, and after the peace of Lunéville he was made lieutenant-general in the Bavarian army, which was entering upon a period of reforms. Wrede soon made himself very popular, and distinguished himself in opposing the Austrian invasions of 1805.

1809[edit]

In the War of the Fifth Coalition, he led the 2nd Bavarian Division in the VII Corps.[4] He played an important part in the Battle of Abensberg on 20 April 1809. In the morning, he probed Joseph Radetzky's Austrian defense at Siegenburg. Unable to make headway, he marched his division north to Biburg and crossed the Abens River. From Biburg, he moved on Kirchdorf and attacked Frederick Bianchi's reinforced brigade.[5] When the Austrians retreated, Wrede aggressively pursued them to Pfeffenhausen late that evening.[6] He led the advance from Pfeffenhausen and was involved in the Battle of Landshut on 21 April, capturing 11 cannon.[7] On 24 April, his division was defeated at the Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit when Johann von Hiller counterattacked in superior force.[8] After occupying Salzburg on 29 April,[9] Wrede moved southwest against the Tyrolean Rebellion. He pushed back Tyrolean irregulars at Lofer on 11 May and defeated Franz Fenner's mixed regulars and Tyroleans at Waidring the next day.[10] On 13 May, he played a major part in crushing the division of Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles in the Battle of Wörgl.[11]

After the French defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon I of France called Wrede's division to Vienna as a reinforcement.[12] At first, Wrede's division stood in reserve in the Battle of Wagram. In the afternoon of 6 July, the Bavarians were sent into battle in support of Jacques MacDonald's celebrated attack. In a successful charge on the village of Sussenbrunn, Wrede was grazed by a bullet. Fearing the wound was fatal, he told MacDonald, "Tell the Emperor I die for him. I recommend to him my wife and children." Seeing that Wrede's injury was minor, the French general smiled and replied, "I think that you will be able to make this recommendation to him yourself." The embarrassed general got up and continued to lead his troops.[13]

Later career[edit]

The Bavarians were for several years the active allies of Napoleon, and Wrede led the Bavarian corps that fought in Russia in 1812. Just before the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, he negotiated the Treaty of Ried between Austria and Bavaria, by which Bavaria switched sides. Wrede then fought with the allies against Napoleon. After Leipzig, he tried to block the French escape at the Battle of Hanau on 30 and 31 October. Wrede positioned his troops poorly and Napoleon smashed one of his wings, inflicting 9,000 casualties. In 1814 he was created prince and field marshal. Wrede represented Bavaria at the Congress of Vienna.

He died in Ellingen. Von Wrede was no doubt the leading Bavarian soldier of his day.

Marriage and issue[edit]

He married on 18 March 1795 Sofie, Gräfin von Wiser (23 May 1771 - 7 May 1837), by whom he had eight children:

  • Amalie Auguste, Fürstin von Wrede (15 January 1796 - 11 September 1871, buried in Oettingen), married in Hochaltingen on 31 August 1813 H.S.H. Johann Aloys III Anton 1. Fürst zu Oettingen-Oettingen und 3. Fürst zu Oettingen-Spielberg (Oettingen, 9 May 1788 - Munich, 7 May 1855, buried in Oettingen), and had issue
  • Carl Theodor 2. Fürst von Wrede (8 January 1797 - 10 December 1871), married firstly on 26 December 1824 Amalie Gräfin von Thürheim (20 July 1801 - 30 October 1842), and had issue, and married secondly on 13 January 1844 Amalie Löw (24 February 1811 - 24 June 1879):
    • Walburga Marie, Fürstin von Wrede (7 March 1826 - 30 December 1883), married on 6 November 1851 Sigismund Graf und Edler Herr zu Boineburg (? - 1882)
    • Carl Friedrich 3. Fürst von Wrede (Munich, 7 February 1828 - Ellingen, 22 December 1897), married in Tutzing on 28 July 1856 Helene Gräfin von Vieregg (Tutzing, 30 March 1838 - Pähl, 21 October 1913), and had issue:
      • Juliane Karoline Anna Maria, Fürstin von Wrede (3 June 1857 - 29 January 1943), married on 14 July 1880 Otto Freiherr von Hallberg zu Broich (? - 1905)
      • Leopoldine Gabriele Anna, Fürstin von Wrede (3 May 1860 - 22 June 1937), unmarried and without issue
      • Carl Philipp 4. Fürst von Wrede (Ellingen, 10 September 1862 - Munich, 16 August 1928), married in Prague on 19 November 1889 H.S.H. Maria Anna Prinzessin von Lobkowicz (Prague, 24 December 1867 - Pähl, 6 May 1957), and had issue:
        • Maria Helene Leonhardine Alexia Ludovica, Fürstin von Wrede (Ellingen, 14 September 1890 - Pähl, 28 June 1974), unmarried and without issue
        • Maria Sidonia (Zdenka) Leopoldine Leonhardine Melchiora, Fürstin von Wrede (Munich, 15 November 1892 - Munich, 21 July 1983), married at Schloss Sandsee on 5 July 1921 Hans Ritter und Edler Herr von Rauscher auf Weeg (Munich, 7 August 1889 - Munich, 28 November 1957)
        • Marie Gabrielle Leopoldine Leonhardine Paula Balthasara, Fürstin von Wrede (Ellingen, 25/26 June 1895 - Munich, 14 September/November 1971), married in Munich civilly on 20 and religiously on 21 March 1922 H.S.H. Robert-Prosper Paul Jean Antoine Engelbert Eugène Marie ErnestJoseph Gaspard Étienne Prinz und Herzog von Arenberg (Pesch-am-Rhein, 10 August 1895 - Munich, 24 February 1972), and had female issue
        • Maria Rosa Simone Bernhardine Kaspara Gregoria, Fürstin von Wrede (Ellingen, 14 November 1896 - Munich, 29 February 1920), married in Munich on 28 June 1919 Hans Ritter und Edler Herr von Rauscher auf Weeg (Munich, 7 August 1889 - Munich, 28 November 1957)
        • Carl Joseph Maria Antonius Oskar Philipp Leonhard Melchior, 5. Fürst von Wrede (Ellingen, 12 June 1899 - Märtensmühle, 3 May 1945, of wounds received in action in the Second World War on 30 April 1945), married as her first husband in Bad Warmbrunn on 17 July 1939 Sophie Hedwig Maria Anna Gräfin Schaffgotsch genannt Semperfrei von und zu Kynast und Greiffenstein (Bad Warmbrunn, 25 May 1916 - Weissenburg, 6 September 2008), and had issue:
          • Anna Gabriella/Gabriele Maria Theresia Kaspara, Fürstin von Wrede (Pähl, 11 September 1940), married as his second wife in Ellingen on 15 October 1971 H.I.a.R.H. Rudolph/Rudolf Syringus Peter Karl Franz Joseph Robert Otto Antonius Maria Pius Benedikt Ignatius Laurentius Justiniani Marcus d'Aviano Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, etc (Prangins, near Nyon, 5 September 1919 - Brussels, 15 May 2010, buried in Klein Muri), and had female issue
          • Carl Friedrich Oskar Melchior 6. Fürst von Wrede (Pähl, 7 June 1942), married firstly in Munich on 26 July 1969 (divorced in 1989) Ingeborg Hamberger (Bad Feilenbach, 2 December 1944), and has issue, and married secondly in Pleinfeld on 9 September 1991 Eva Katharina Kovarcz de Kovarczfalva (Obervellach, 10 November 1945), without issue:
            • Alexandra Elisabeth Sophie Maria Caspara, Fürstin von Wrede (Munich, 12 May 1970), married civilly in Frières on 27 March 1998 and religiously in Ellingen on 2 May 1998 H.I.a.R.H. Karl/Carl Peter Otto Serge Joseph Paul Leopold Heinrich Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, etc (Katana, 5 November 1955), and has issue
            • Carl Christian Franz Ferdinand Melchior, Fürst von Wrede (Munich, 6 November 1972), married civilly in Schloss Ellingen on 14 June 2003 amnd religiously in Budapest on 12 July 2003 Katalin Gräfin Bethlen de Bethlen (Vienna, 20 September 1975), and has issue:
              • Alicia Claire Eugenie Sophie, Fürstin von Wrede (Vienna, 7 December 2007)
              • Carl Nikolaus Franz Valentin Melchor, Fürst von Wrede (Vienna, 29 January 2010)
              • Balint Alexis Philipp Gilbert Balthasar, Fürst von Wrede (Vienna, 24 April 2012)
            • Sophie-Elisabeth Maria Balthasara, Fürstin von Wrede (Pähl, 16 January 1944), married in Ellingen on 17 August 1968 Tassilo de Garnerin de la Thuille, Graf von Montgelas (Pähl, 2 April 1937)
        • Maria Ida Leonhardine Hedwig Mechtildis Balthasara, Fürstin von Wrede (Munich, 26 February 1909 - Anholt, 25 October 1998), married as his first wife in Munich on 19 July 1928 (divorced in 1948) H.S.H. Nikolaus Leopold Heinrich Alfred Emanuel Friedrich Antonius 6. Fürst zu Salm-Salm, Wild- und Rheingraf (Potsdam, 14 February 1906 - Anholt, 15 January 1988), and had issue
      • Oskar Eugen Friedrich Maria, Fürst von Wrede (Munich, 20 May 1867 - Ellingen, 16 June 1953), unmarried and without issue
    • Otto Friedrich, Fürst von Wrede (25 April 1829 - 14 February 1896), married on 24 September 1858 Ignatia von Mack (23 April 1837 - 12 November 1905), and had issue:
      • Helene Ignatia Amalie, Fürstin von Wrede (Vienna, 18 September 1859 - Wallgau, 21 September 1935), married in Mondsee on 2 July 1879 Karl Graf von Almeida (Lisbon, 10 May 1846 - Munich, 21 Jul 1902)
    • Emma Sofie, Fürstin von Wrede (17 June 1831 - 7 January 1888), married on 5 June 1853 Wilhelm Graf von Tattenbach (? - 1898)
    • Oskar Eugen, Fürst von Wrede (23 September 1834 - 2 September 1907), married on 16 October 1873 Maria Freiin von Leitner (5 June 1848 - 17 July 1902), and had issue:
      • Albin Oskar, Fürst von Wrede (26 September 1874 - 1877/8)
      • Karl Friedrich Maximilian, Fürst von Wrede (12 October 1875 - 1877/8)
    • Alfred Josef, Fürst von Wrede (11 January 1836 - 9 January 1839)
    • Alfred Karl Johann Friedrich Georg, Fürst von Wrede (2 July 1844 - 1 October 1911), married firstly on 19 September 1866 (divorced in 1883) Rosa von Mack (25 February 1831 - 7 January 1915), and had issue, and married secondly on 23 July 1884 Karola Köpatha de Nemes Kapus (11 July 1844 - 28 January 1926), without issue:
      • Olga Alfreda Rosa, Fürstin von Wrede (25 July 1867 - 9 August 1938), married on 8 September 1885 Alfred Lodzia Prinz von Ponin-Poninski (? - 1915)
      • Adalbert Alfred Friedrich Otto, Fürst von Wrede (1868 - 1883)
      • Ignaz Christian Egon Friedrich, Fürst von Wrede (9 February 1870 - 5 September 1945)
  • Josef, Fürst von Wrede (27 September 1800 - 26 December 1871), married on 31 October 1836 Anastasia Petrowo-Seolowowo (17 April 1808 - 25 December 1870), and had issue:
    • Nikolaus, Fürst von Wrede (Saint Petersburg, 26 December 1837 - Gmunden, 1 August 1909), married in Vienna on 15 June 1879 Gabriele Gräfin zu Herberstein (Graz, 3 December 1851 - Gmunden, 9 November 1923), and had issue:
      • Gabrielle Therese Maria Pia Anastasia Olga, Fürstin von Wrede (Graz, 5 May 1880 - Lugano-Massagno, 18 May 1966), married in Vienna on 27 April 1907 Eduard Graf von Kielmansegg (Vienna, 17 February 1874 - Walshausen, 10 February 1941)
      • Maria Theresia Josefa, Fürstin von Wrede (Athens, 29 October 1881 - 19__), unmarried and without issue
      • Therese Maria Josefa Antonia Anna Ignatia Lydia, Fürstin von Wrede (Munich, 29 March 1893 - Gmunden, 6 February 1973), married in Gmunden on 21 October 1919 Ernst August Freiherr von der Wense (Vienna, 28 May 1891 - Gmunden, 16 December 1942)
    • Olga, Fürstin von Wrede (14 January 1839 - ?), married on 1 May 1862 Karl Freiherr von Simbschen (? - 1865)
    • Anastasia, Fürstin von Wrede (Cerlenkow, 12 August 1840 - Wiener Neustadt, 28 December 1912), married in Graz on 30 May 1870 H.I.H. Friedrich Albrecht Ludwig Franz Graf zu Ortenburg (Mühlhausen, 3 October 1831 - Coburg, 28 August 1904), and had issue
    • Konstantin, Fürst von Wrede (15 January 1842 - 30 December 1873), unmarried and without issue
    • Adolf, Fürst von Wrede (23 July 1849 - September 1923), married firstly on 30 June 1892 (divorced in 1896) Ludmilla Maldaner (4 September 1861 - ?), without issue, and married secondly on 22 October 1896 María del Carmen de Alvear y Pacheco (16 September 1855 - 2 June 1926), without issue
  • Gustav Friedrich, Fürst von Wrede (23 February 1802 - 13 April 1840), married on 19 May 1833 Maria, Contessa Balsamo (27 September 1802 - 23 July 1841), and had issue:
    • Johanna Adelaide, Fürstin von Wrede (28 July 1834 - 23 May 1915), married on 3 October 1860 Karl Graf von Wiser
    • Sofie, Fürstin von Wrede (26 September 1836 - 13 May 1849)
  • Eugen Franz, Fürst von Wrede (4 March 1806 - 1 May 1845), married on 4 April 1835 Mathilde Therese Freiin von Schaumburg (13 September 1811 - 15 December 1887), and had issue:
    • Edmund Karl, Fürst von Wrede (14 January 1836 - 2 November 1890), unmarried and without issue
    • Bertha Amalie, Fürstin von Wrede (30 August 1837 - 19 September 1883), unmarried and without issue
    • Eugen Adolf, Fürst von Wrede (Munich, 6 January 1839 - Munich, 18 October 1909), married in Schloss Weixelsteinon 29 September 1875 Maria von Gutmansthal-Benvenuti (Odessa, 3 December 1852 - Munich, 30 May 1936), and had issue:
      • Karl Ludwig Edmund Maria, Fürst von Wrede (Pola, 15 September 1876 - Munich, 31 January 1947), married in Munich on 24 June 1930 Marie Alice Mayer (Lommeringen, 1 May 1886 - 19__), without issue
      • Edmund Alexander Nikolaus Maria, Fürst von Wrede (Weixelstein, 21 August 1878 - Munich, 14 March 1963), married in Madrid on 20 May 1903 Edda de Benítez y Alvear (Buenos Aires, 3 November 1880 - Munich, 21 November 1958), and had issue:
        • Carmen Adolfine Nicolette Elvira Dolores Elli Charlotte Maria, Fürstin von Wrede (Berlin, 28 March 1904 - Munich, 25 March 1994, buried in Bamberg), married civilly in Bayreuth on 7 September 1946 and religiously in Schloss Niederstotzingen on 24 September 1946 H.S.H. Alexander Ernst August Ignaz Joseph Prinz zu Solms-Braunfels (Braunfels, 5 August 1903 - Munich, 8 October 1989, buried in Bamberg), without issue
        • Edda Maria Lydia Angeles Eugenia Adamsina Therese Edmunda, Fürstin von Wrede (Berlin, 28 March 1904 - Munich, 28 July 1985), married in Bayreuth on 2 April 1946 (divorced in 1961) Walter Burckhard (Strassburg, 19 February 1908 - 19__)
        • Edmund Philipp Josef Adam Karl Eugen Antonius Eustachius Maria, Fürst von Wrede (20 September 1919 - k.a. in the Second World War, 22 June 1941), unmarried and without issue
  • Sofie Marie, Fürstin von Wrede (4 March 1806 - 21 June 1866), unmarried and without issue
  • Natalie Wilhelmine, Fürstin von Wrede (4 March 1809 - ?), unmarried and without issue
  • Adolf Wilhelm, Fürst von Wrede (8 October 1810 - 27 July 1884), married on 24 April 1836 Desirée Grabowska (1 June 1799 - 16 November 1863), and had issue:
    • Raoul Josef, Fürst von Wrede (25 November 1843 - 19 October 1914), married Marie Gräfin Czapska (? - 10 December 1873), without issue

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Regarding personal names: Fürst is a title, translated as Prince not a first or middle name. The feminine form is Fürstin.
  2. ^ Princely House of Wrede
  3. ^ * Moritz, Freiherr von Wrede (Rzestow, 24 April 1811 - Graz, 18 May 1877), married on 13 June 1839 Natalia Tallián de Vizék (Güns, 1 November 1818 - Pressburg, 13 September 1885), by whom he had:
      • Alfons Julius Anton, Freiherr von Wrede (Reps, 4 January 1843 - ?), married in Graz on 7 February 1880 Eleonore Filomene Edlauer (Krainburg, 20 February 1852 - ?), by whom he had:
        • Sidonie Eleonore, Freiin von Wrede (Pressburg, 7 May 1885 - ?), unmarried and without issue
        • Eleonore Alice, Freiin von Wrede (Marburg, 15 May 1886 - ?), unmarried and without issue
    • Sophie Katharina Josephine, Freiin von Wrede (23 November 1811 [this date listed in works on her husband's family, but may conflict with the birthdate of her brother] - 16 June 1876), married on 23 February 1830 Hermann Albrecht Heinrich Ernst Graf von Schönburg-Hinterglauchau (7 February 1796 - 14 May 1841), and had female issue
    • Karl Philipp, Freiherr von Wrede (Mülhausen, 15 March 1817 - Vienna, 8 July 1857), married in Gersthof near Vienna on 7 July 1849 Marie Emmy Freiin von Broëta (24 February 1826 - ?), without issue
  4. ^ Bowden & Tarbox, p 61
  5. ^ Arnold Crisis, pp 114-115
  6. ^ Arnold Crisis, p 137
  7. ^ Arnold Crisis, pp 143
  8. ^ Petre, p 219
  9. ^ Petre, p 224
  10. ^ Smith, pp 301-302
  11. ^ Smith, p 303
  12. ^ Epstein, p 146
  13. ^ Arnold Napoleon, pp 163-164

References[edit]

External links[edit]