Karl Sudhoff (26 November 1853, Frankfurt am Main - 8 October 1938, Salzwedel) was a German historian of medicine, important in establishing that field as a legitimate discipline for research and teaching within faculties of medicine.
Sudhoff taught for years at the University of Leipzig, where he founded the Institute for the History of Medicine (Institut für Geschichte der Medizin) and exercised strong control over the direction of German medical history. He also established the journal Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin, later renamed Sudhoffs Archiv, and the monograph series Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin. As a researcher, he had a reputation for strength in archival research, and made a particular contribution to the revival of interest in Paracelsus. He retired in 1925, and was succeeded in his position at Leipzig by Henry E. Sigerist.
In 1933 Sudhoff joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP), to the great dismay of many of his peers. He maintained his membership for the rest of his life. After Sigerist's 1932 departure for the Johns Hopkins University, Sudhoff again headed the Institute at Leipzig. He turned the position over to Walter von Brunn in 1934. He died in Salzwedel on October 8, 1938.
- Kelly Boyd, ed. (1999). "Sudhoff, Karl". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 2. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1153–1155. ISBN 1-884964-33-8.
- Owsei Temkin (1977). The Double Face of Janus and Other Essays in the History of Medicine. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-8018-1859-1.
- Thomas Rütten, "Karl Sudhoff and 'the Fall' of German Medical History," (2004). Locating Medical History: The Stories and their Meanings. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 95–114. ISBN 0-8018-8548-5.