||It has been suggested that Kanara (Canara) Konkani be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2011.|
|कोंकणी, Konknni, ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, കൊങ്കണി|
|Pronunciation||kõkɵɳi (standard), kõkɳi (popular)|
|Region||Kenya, Uganda, Pakistan, Persian Gulf, Lisbon in Portugal|
|(no estimate available)|
|Devanagari (official), Latin, Kannada, Malayalam and Arabic|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Various academies and the Government of Goa|
Karnataka Konkani refers to the various dialects of Konkani language spoken in the state of Karnataka,and some parts of Kerala. Konkani is spoken by a remarkable number of Goan migrants who have settled in Uttara Kannada, Udupi, South Kanara and many other places in North and south Karnataka for the last few centuries.
Konkani families migrated to North Canara and South Canara on three separate occasions:
- Hindu exodus between 1312-1327 when General Malik Kafur of the Delhi Sultans Alauddin Khilji and Muhammed bin Tughlaq destroyed Govapuri and the Kadambas
- Hindu exodus subsequent to 1470 when the Bahamani kingdom captured Goa, and subsequently in 1492 by Sultan Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur
- Hindu exodus due to persecution and proselytisation of Hindus by Portuguese Jesuist and Franciscan missionaries subsequent to 1500
- Hindu, Muslim and Neo-Catholic Christian exodus during the Inquisition ordered by St. Francis Xavier which was established in 1560 and abolished in 1812
According to census of India,1991 40.1% Konkani speakers hail from the state of Karnataka.In Karnataka over 80% of them are from the coastal districts of North and South Kanara,including Udupi.3.6% of the Konkani speakers are from Kerala,and nearly half of them are from Ernakulam district.
Konkani in Karnataka has been in contact with Kannada, Tulu and Malayalam to some extent,thus showing Dravidian influence on its syntax. According to the linguists Konkani in Karnataka has undergone a process of degenitivization,and is moving towards dativizationon the pattern of Dravidian languages.Degenitivization means the loss or replacement of the genitives,and Dativization means replacement of the genitive in the donor language (ie.Konkani) by the dative case marker in the recipient language(ie.Kannada).
In Karnataka Konkani present continuous tense is strikingly observable which is not so prominent in Goan Konkani. Present indefinite of the auxiliary is fused with present participle of the primary verb,and the auxiliary is partially dropped. The southern dialects when came in contact with Dravidian languages this difference became more prominent in dialects spoken in Karnataka whereas Goan Konkani still retains the original form. e.g.: I eat and I am eating sound similar in Goan Konkani,due to loss of auxiliary in colloquial speech.hāv khātā correspondeds to I am eating.On the other hand in Karnataka Konkani;hāv khātā corresponds to I eat,and hāv khātoāsā or hāv khāter āsā means I am eating.
Konkani speaking communities in Karnataka and Kerala
- "Standard official spelling".
- Whiteley, Wilfred Howell (1974). Language in Kenya. Oxford University Press,. p. 589.
- Kurzon, Denis (2004). Where East looks West: success in English in Goa and on the Konkan Coast Volume 125 of Multilingual matters. Multilingual Matters,. p. 158. ISBN 9781853596735.
- Devanagari has been promulgated as the official script.
- Latin script is not mandated as official script by law. However, an ordinance passed by the Government of Goa allows the use of Roman script for official communication.
- The use of Kannada script is not mandated by any law or ordinance. However, in the state of Karnataka, Konkani can be taught using the Kannada script instead of the Devanagari script.
- "The Goa Daman and Diu Official Language Act" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 2010-03-05.
- Cardona, George; Dhanesh Jain (2007). "20:Konkani". The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge language family series. Rocky V. Miranda (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 1088. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
- Bhaskararao, Peri; Karumuri V. Subbarao (2004). "Non-nominative subjects in Dakkhani and Konkani". Non-nominative subjects,. Grammar, Comparative and general. Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 332. ISBN 978-90-272-2970-0.
- Janardhan, Pandarinath Bhuvanendra (1991). A Higher Konkani grammar. P.B. Janardhan. p. 317.
- Karnataka State gazetteer. Volume 15. The Director of Print, Stationery and Publications at the Govt. Press. 1965.