Karol Stanisław "Panie Kochanku" Radziwiłł

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For other people to use this name see: Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł
Prince
Karol Stanisław
Radziwiłł
"Panie Kochanku"
Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł Panie Kochanku 111.PNG

POL COA Radziwiłł.svg
Spouse(s) Maria Karolina Lubomirska
Teresa Karolina Rzewuska
Father Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł
Mother Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecka
Born (1734-02-27)February 27, 1734
Nieśwież, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Died November 21, 1790(1790-11-21) (aged 56)
Biała Podlaska, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Lithuanian: Karolis Stanislovas Radvila; 1734–90) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal. He is frequently referred to by his idiolect "Panie Kochanku" ("My Dear Sir") to distinguish him from his earlier namesake (1669–1719).[1]

Radziwiłł held many posts in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. From 1752 he was Master Swordbearer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. On 3 August 1757 he was awarded the Order of the White Eagle and was one of that decoration's first recipients. From 1762 he was Voivode of Vilnius.

In 1767 he became Marshal General of the Radom Confederation and, the following year, Marshal of the Bar Confederation. After its fall in 1772 he emigrated, but in 1777 returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and resumed all his previous posts after having first pledged his loyalty to King Stanisław II Augustus, whom he had opposed. During the Great Sejm (1788–92) he was a leading opponent of reform, King Stanisław Augustus and the Familia.

Radziwiłł was the wealthiest magnate in Poland in the second half of the 18th century, and one of the richest men in Europe. His properties included 16 cities, 683 villages and 25 counties, both in Poland and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Legends about him abounded, and he was featured in novels and poems. On the one hand, he was pictured as a drunkard and degenerate reveler; on the other, as a flamboyant character, the best representative of Sarmatism, and a great patriot. He was popular among the poorer nobility and remains today a symbol of his era.

The prince owned a house on the rue Neuve des Bons Enfants in Paris. The street is now called the Rue Radziwill.[2]

Early life and studies[edit]

Karol Stanisław was born on 27 February, 1734 to Genral-Hetman Michał Kazimierz "Rybeńko" Radziwiłł and Princess Urszula Franciszka Wiśniowiecka and spent his childhood in Nieśwież, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which was then part of the mighty Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Because of his Polish noble and aristocratic background, he was provided with the best educational services in the country, however, historians often point out that Karol's father complained about the education of his son and accused the governess, tutors and teachers for neglected upbringing. Marcin Matuszewicz wrote in his diary about Karol and his twin brother Janusz: "Everything was obvious at once, quite promiscuous education, without any discipline. The infants were mischievous, without manners, nor respect towards the elders and people of higher standards." "He studied only when told, but with great dissatisfaction" - stated one of the members of the household, who also witnessed Karol's unpredictable and bad behaviour. Karol's most prominent teacher and tutor was Jesuit Mikołaj Kuczewski, who - as claimed by Matuszewicz- could not educate the child properly because of his "wilderness." According to Edward Kotłubaj, from 1743 to 1746 Radziwiłł studied at the private Jesuit college in Nieśwież, but after a long illness (Smallpox) he did not return to school. In 1739 Radziwiłł, along with his brother Janusz, received from the Palatine of Rhine the Order of St. Hubert. In 1748, while still being a minor, he was officially accepted into the Polish parliament, but he was still not allowed to vote because of his age. The fourteen year old son of a Hetman was met with the highest honors, when was appointed one of the deputies of a statesman that took part in the selection of the Speaker of the Sejm. Now allowed to vote and express his viewpoints in the parliament, Radziwiłł strongly opposed the destruction of an army garrison responsible for defending the city of Brest near the river Bug. In 1750 he was chosen to be a member of the Lithuanian Tribunal, representing the city of Pińsk. On April 20, 1751 he was appointed the "second colonel" of the national forces in the Grand Duchy. He accompanied his father on a trip to Wschowa, where the King of Poland Augustus III signed, on June 7, a parliamentary act. In 1752 Radziwiłł became the Cupbearer of Lithuania. As a member of the Vilnius parliament, in early 1752 he was appointed the Deputy Speaker of the Sejm and in October, during a Parliament sitting, he was promoted to Master Swordbearer of the Grand Duchy.

Marriage, family and disputes[edit]

Throughout his life Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł lived mostly in the Nieśwież area and often visited his numerous estates in the Eastern Borderlands of the Commonwealth. His parents always believed that he would marry young, but Karol had no interest in relationships and love. In 1752 Karol's father, Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł, desperately asked if Isabella Czartoryska would marry his son, but Isabella's father, August Czartoryski, refused believing that the couple was too young and undisciplined. Soon after, Michał Kazimierz began negotiations with Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, and proposed a marriage between his eldest daughter and his son. Prussian King Frederick II the Great agreed to the proposition as the head of the House of Hohenzollern, however, demanding in return Michał's support for the unfavorable Prussian policy. Eventually the Margrave refused as his daughter, a strong, patriotic, young woman with anti-Polish sentiment refused to covert to Catholicism, the state religion of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Later that year, Michał Kazimierz suggested that his son marries Maria Lubomirska, the only daughter of Governor of Bolimów, Jan Kazimierz Lubomirski and his wife Urszula Branicka, the sister of famous and wealthy Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki. Karol himself, was more interested in marrying Teofila Potocka, the daughter of Stanisław Potocki, Voivode of Kiev, and was reluctant to marriage with Maria, but - in this case having the support of his mother - the father after his wife's death (May 23, 1753) led to the engagement, and soon after to the wedding (23 October, 1753 in Mościska). The marriage from the beginning was unfortunate, mostly caused by the rivalry of the two families. In 1756, in Lwów, Michał Kazimierz sought to annul the marriage in order to preserve his young son's good mental health and strength. The process continued for several years and, according to Matuszewicz, the dispute concerned only money matters. Eventually Michał Kazimierz asked the Primate of Rome for help and on November 5, 1760 the Vatican annulled the marriage. On the basis of the judgment Radziwiłł was forced to pay Lubomirska 228 000 złoty as compensation for the time and the maintenance of marriage. This tense situation between the two houses, however, brought some good aspects, as from that day Hetman Branicki became a close friend and supporter of the Radziwiłł family.

Karol claimed that the failed marriage turned him into an alcoholic and a vulgar human being, surrounding himself with young adventurers with similar life issues. Following some public, embarrassing and violent situations that Karol encountered on the streets, while being under the influence of alcohol (most notably he became violent in a bar and threw fists at an elderly nobleman of higher status), he found himself under the direct control of his father. However, because of his public functions, he was still protected by the Crown and still highly respected among the civilians and nobility, even though he, even in the parliament, publicly compromised himself by his "drunken-foolish" conduct and behaviour. For these functions, moreover, he was rather a figurehead or de facto officially did not hold the post at all. Dn. On May 1, 1754 he was appointed major general of the army, and, in the same year, he represented the town of Nowogródek in the parliament. In 1755 as Deputy of Kowno (now Kaunas) he became the Tribunal Speaker from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, however, he strongly neglected his position, and gave the control over to Deputy Marshal Jan Abramowicz, his brother Jerzy and Ignacy Bohusz. The reaction to this "Radziwiłł" tribunal was the mobilization of the forces of the Czartoryski family, the dominating family of the Grand Duchy, who having won the next tribunal election, replaced Karol Stanisław with Jerzy Flemming. Subsequently, during one of the tribunal sittings, Karol publicly accused his father of cowardice, because he was not able to stand up against Czartoryski's policy. In 1755 Radziwiłł purchased from Joachim Potocki the city of Lwów and in 1757 he received (personally from the king) the Order of the White Eagle. In 1759, in Warsaw, he received the title of a Prince and a claim on the Duchy of Courland.

Inheritance and conflict with Count Brühl[edit]

Fortune and jealousy of the royal court[edit]

After his father's death (15 May, 1762) Karol inherited a colossal fortune (half-brother Hieronim, being still a minor, remained under his care and under his control) and became one of the first "celebrities" in Poland, after the king, who protected and favoured the Czartoryski family turned against them and instead supported Karol. Initially, Polish-Saxon Minister Heinrich von Brühl (in Poland known as Henryk Bruhl), one the most loyal people to the monarch, was against the king's decision and hesitated in breaking the ties with the Czartoryskis. Instead, he even tried to imprison Radziwiłł and deprive him of all titles, but he was unsuccessful, because Radziwiłł had previously invested in the support of Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, a powerful, wealthy and very influential magnate who opposed royal policies and personally hated Heinrich von Brühl. Following this Branicki threatened Brühl that a mutiny would erupt in the east against the king. In June, Radziwiłł went to Warsaw, where he met with Branicki and despite bribing Minister Brühl to regain his position in the Sejm and several estates in the Vilnius region he did not succeed. Upon returning to Nieśwież, Radziwiłł sought to increase the power and influence of small deputy-voting chambers in the Grand Duchy. He wished that the king and his ministers, including Brühl, would take into consideration the votes from the Grand Duchy when introducing new policies and laws.

Help from the East and final resolution[edit]

At the beginning of August, under the pretext of receiving the Order of St. Andrew, Radziwiłł secretly sent an envoy to Catherine II the Great, asking her for the protection of his position in the parliament and for the protection of his assets in the G. Duchy and in Poland, if, by any chance, a conflict would erupt between him and the monarch, and the ministers would deprive him of all titles and fortune. On August 24 he became the representative (poseł) of Livonia from Lithuania. Arriving at the parliament in Warsaw, in the company of a large army, possibly sent by Catherine who agreed to help, he made an agreement with Brühl and in October Radziwiłł received the entire province of Vilnius (Województwo Wileńskie), instead giving Eustachy Potocki the city of Lwów, as it was located in Ruthenia and was not part of the Grand Duchy, therefore after Radziwiłł's death, the Potocki family would inherit the city. When, under the influence of the Czartoryski family, Stanisław Poniatowski demanded the removal of Alois Friedrich von Brühl from the Chamber of Deputies, because of not having Polish noble background or heritage, surprisingly Radziwiłł stood in his defense, accusing the Czartoryskis and S. Poniatowski of breaking the liberum veto ("golden liberty" - freedom policy of the Polish Commonwealth).

Politics and rivalry with the Czartoryski family[edit]

After spending time in the capital, Radziwiłł visited his estates in Wołyń (Volhynia), where he was falsely informed of Hetman Michał Massalski's death. Believing in the message, he sent letters to the Sejm asking if he could inherit the title of a Hetman from Massalski. When he returned in December to Nieśwież, he vigorously began the expansion of Lithuanian voting chambers and in this case sought the support of the royal court, explaining that he was wrongly accused of binge drinking and "wild adventures" during his stay in Ołyka, while travelling to Nieśwież from Wołyń. In March 1763 he again returned to Warsaw and suggested the reconsideration of changing any laws and policies which coincided with Lithuanian freedom and sovereignty. During this sitting, the members of the Czartoryski family offended and angered Radziwiłł by saying that the Grand Duchy has no right to sovereignty. Radziwiłł later threatened that he would mobilize his forces and invade the Czartoryski estates near Vilnius, but he was unable to do so because of the king, who previously invested in them, and Radziwiłł was afraid that it would anger the royal court.

Radziwiłł led a series of unsuccessful attempts to destroy the Czartoryski "alliance" against him, but he could not have done so because of the Saxon-Russian intervention led by Russian Colonel Puchkov, a close friend of the Czartoryski clan, who brought terror to the Eastern parts of the Commonwealth and was a threat to Radziwiłł's possessions in the eastern parts of the Duchy.

On April 18, Radziwiłł made a coalition with other noble families of the Duchy and created a manifesto against the Great Sejm of Poland that considered the secret tribunal sittings in Lithuania illegal and that they should be forbidden. Czartoryski, though without much success, tried to carry out a boycott of the Radziwiłł tribunal. He later announced the formation of a confederation and asked Catherine II to send Russian troops to Lithuania in the hope that they would destroy the tribunal and even perhaps execute its leaders, however, Catherine has decided not to undertake such drastic actions and only sent troops to Ruthenia. Karol Stanisław, after the founding of the national tribunal in Nieśwież that was focused on anti-Russian sentiment, returned to Vilnius and directed his militia troops to Białystok on a conference of the party leaders. Czartoryski tried to convince Russian ambassador Kayserling that Radziwiłł has gone mad and would start a civil war in order to break the Russian-Polish friendship truce and asked if he could convince Catherine to destroy Radziwiłł's plans. On the Nieśwież tribunal, Karol proposed a war against Russia, but the majority of nobles gathered at the tribunal disagreed with him and believed that it would cause a bloodshed. Eventually Catherine II, worried about her popularity among other European leaders, withdrew from the Eastern Borderlands and Radziwiłł emerged triumphant over the Czartoryski family. He increased the influence of his own party and optimistically strengthened the importance of Lithuanian tribunals, proving it to be fruitful for the Commonwealth's economy, as he said in the Polish parliament. He was now considered one of the wisest and most respected men in the country, a man of freedom and Polish sovereignty, however ironically, Matuszewicz noted that at most of the tribunal sittings and political gatherings he was not sober.

"It's hard to describe it all, what the prince did when not sober. When one drinks alone, a wise man indeed he is, but with others to accompany him, then hell is created"

—Matuszewicz - his impressions of the 1763 conference in Nieśwież.

Death of Augustus III and neglected duties[edit]

The death of King Augustus III in 1763 did not change Radziwiłł's obscure behaviour and addiction to alcohol, which now negatively influenced his highly successful policies and political campaigns. Furthermore ambassador Kayserling demanded his separation from Hetman Branicki. Unlike Czartoryski, who constantly improved and participated in local councils, Radziwiłł neglected his duties, and, on the advice of one of his companions, he concluded several treaties with his closest allies, which eventually resulted in the weakening of his political party and proved to be a harm for the peasants supporting the policies issued by the Lithuanian councils under Radziwiłł's control. As a result, the election of deputies and court marshals were mostly influenced by the Czartoryskis. Radziwiłł, trying to repair his delicate and temporary reputation, travelled to Vilnius and in 1764 he established a new, illegal council and proclaimed himself marshal. The council was mostly focused on diminishing the power of Polish nobility, supportive of the Russian control over the Commonwealth, that resided in the Grand Duchy. The following day, drunk Radziwiłł broke into the home of Countess Anna Tyszkiewicz, and then to the palace of Bishop Ignacy Massalski where he insulted the royal court and humorously threatened to burn the property. The sober prince later apologized to the bishop. Having given up the duties of marshal, in March Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł left Vilnius. He later sent his militia (approx. 300 men) to defend the polish diplomatic position at the Prussian council in Grudziądz.

On April 8, 1764 Radziwiłł married Teresa Karolina Rzewuska, the daughter of Hetman Wacław Rzewuski.

Struggle against the Grodno Confederation and exile[edit]

On April 16, 1764, in the city of Grodno, a General Confederation against Radziwiłł was formed under the control of Michał Brzostowski. It was mostly focused on Radziwiłł's actions against the state and the Confederation believed that he was a threat to the monarchy, rather than a supporter of Polish sovereignty. On May 5 he travelled to Warsaw with his militia (approx. 1, 000 men) in order to calm down the court and demand the destruction of the so-called "foolish Grodno confederation" and the Convocation Sejm. At the meeting in the Royal Castle, Radziwiłł reportedly demanded from Jan Klemens Branicki the use of force as a result of this alliance, however, on May 7 Radziwiłł, together with other leaders of the Republican camp and the Saxon Cabinet, signed a peace treaty and the next day, together with Branicki, left Warsaw with his militia. A few days later he separated from the Hetman, and went to the town of Biała, previously having received 11, 000 ducats from the Saxon court. Radziwiłł spent a few weeks in Biała and in late May he sent Michał Pac as an envoy to Dresden and Berlin to discuss the protection of his possessions by the Prussian state and government, but he was unsuccessful. After the royal court in Warsaw heard the news that he was secretly negotiating with Prussia (a political and cultural enemy of the Commonwealth) for his own benefit, the Convocation Sejm ordered the Hetmans (all of the finest generals in the country) to work with the Russian army against Radziwiłł. Furthermore the royal court wanted to seize all of his estates in the Grand Duchy. Upon hearing the news that the Confederates were seeking help of the Russian army to capture Nieśwież, Radziwiłł went to Lithuania, on the way defeating the militia and troops of Treasurer J. Flemming in Terespol and partly (probably unintentionally) burning the city. Radziwiłł's victorious militia was eventually defeated on June 26 by the Russian army in Słonim (Radziwiłł himself did not participate in the battle), forcing him to retreat to Wołyń (Volhynia). In July he arrived in Ołyka. After a few days, to the news of the impending Russian army and the nearby forces of Franciszek Ksawery Branicki (a relative and great adversary of Jan Klemens Branicki) Radziwiłł moved towards the Turkish border. On July 14, having passed the Dniester river, the infantry and artillery of Radziwiłł surrendered near the town of Mohylow. He later fled to the Principality of Moldavia, first he was in Ottaka, and then in Soroca. He begged the Moldavian governor and the Ottoman authorities if he be could be allowed to travel to Turkish-occupied Hungary, where he wanted to meet with the Jan Klemens Branicki, and asked if his troops and cavalry could station in Soroca.

Radziwiłł constantly hoped for a positive change of the political situation in the Commonwealth, and therefore remained loyal to some of the Hetmans, however, he refused military aid for the Confederation of Marian Potocki (August 6), although he expressed sympathy towards his policies. In early September, after receiving permission to travel, he crossed the Hungarian border and took part in a forty-day conference in Transylvania. In the first decade of November he went to Presov to meet his most trusted friend and military commander, Hetman Branicki.

The Grodno Decree and confiscation of estates by the Czartoryski family[edit]

In June, 1764, the Russian troops captured Nieśwież and Słuck. The Grodno Confederation issued a Decree on August 16 stating that Radziwiłł committed many crimes against the government, mostly for his own benefit, and declared him an enemy of the country, and ordered the confiscation of all personal assets and estates, but the death penalty was not mentioned in the document. All past curators, and also the former guardians of Hieronim Wincenty Radziwiłł were imprisoned, and young Hieronim was now under the care of Bishop Massalski, Chancellor Michał Czartoryski and Józef Radziwiłł. Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, if captured, was to be imprisoned in the Słuck fortress. The Decree also deprived him authority of the Vilnius province and questioned the legal basis for the regulations of the Nieśwież province. The document also mentioned the confiscation of Radziwiłł's troops and artillery and requested punishment for numerous supporters of Radziwiłł, primarily on I. Bohusz. Undoubtedly, Czartoryskis' intention was to destroy the enormous fortune that Radziwiłł possessed, and thus stabilize the weak economy of the Commonwealth by selling his assets to foreign investors. The Sejm approved all of the Decrees of the confederation and agreed to confiscate his goods and sell them to his former business partners, who were now his enemies, and furthermore, the document enhanced foreign traders and politicians to also be part of the "share". Even the normal judicial tribunals, supportive of Radziwiłł's policies, were now in the hands of the Czartoryski family. By doing this, the Czartoryskis rewarded their clients, allies and supporters (especially the Massalski family), antagonizing them against Radziwiłl, who were once his own clients and old friends. Most notably Eustachy Potocki, who loyally supported Radziwiłł in 1763, received the city of Żółkiew.

Radziwiłł lived almost a year in Presov, with the hope of acquiring the protection of Habsburg Austria, France, Turkey, Saxony and Prussia. On August 11, 1764 he wrote to M. Pac to ask him if he could seek the help of the Russian Empress, Catherine the Great, by coaxing her. In the last paragraph of the letter to Catherine, Radziwiłł wrote: "Such a great monarch, the brightest lady, Russian Empress. It would be a great honor to seek your protection MY QUEEN, LOVE K. S. RADZIWIŁŁ" He even offered to pay the Russian Imperial Court for service. Radziwiłł also remained in contact with some of his supporters in the Commonwealth, mostly near the Turkish-Hungarian border, and often asked them for loans. Initially, many of his adherents accompanied him in exile, but left soon after worried for their reputation. In November, 1764 M. Pac and Stanisław Ferdynand Rzewuski left Presov once in for all leaving Radziwiłł without moral support. Also, his wife, whom he accused of having an affair with Bohusz, left for Warsaw and when she returned to Presov Radziwiłł refused to see her. Later Bohusz, barely defended himself from the attack of Radziwiłł's men. Following this event, Bohusz left Presov and unsuccessfully asked the newly elected king Stanisław II Augustus for forgiveness.

Radziwiłł rejected the proposal of the Royal Court of Vienna (August 1765) to return to Poland and to sell his valuable goods to the Austrian Emperor in return for protection. In early September, 1765 Radziwiłł was persuaded by John Baptist Aloy to go to Saxony, in order to get closer to Berlin, and ask for the patronage of Frederick II. In mid-October, he arrived in Prague, but it turned out that the Royal Court of Dresden at the moment does not wish for his arrival. He eventually arrived in Dresden on February 6, 1766. From then on Radziwiłł sent letters to king Stanisław II Augustus and begged him for the final abolition of the Confederation, however, the king, who somewhat favoured Radziwiłł, was under the constant pressure and control of the Czartoryski family. Therefore his requests were rejected once more.

Catherine's aid and return to the country[edit]

Already in August 1766, through the Saxon government, Radziwiłł came into contact with the newly appointed Russian envoy in Dresden, A. Beloselsky. Beloselsky, which heavily criticized Radziwiłł's poor living conditions in Dresden, also demanded Russian support for him. As a result of declining confidence of the imperial court of St. Petersburg towards the Polish king and Czartoryski, on October 18, 1766 Russian foreign minister allowed the ambassador to engage with Radziwiłł and facilitate his return to the Poland. On October 27 Radziwiłł, with the support of Jerzy Mniszech, turned for protection to politicians Nikita Ivanovich Panin and Nicholas Repnin. In 1767 he renewed the request, promising with his family and "friends" undying loyalty. At that time, the court of St. Petersburg finally ended the cooperation with the Czartoryski family.

Eventually Radziwiłł left Dresden and on May 22 he arrived in the city of Słupsk, having passed the Polish territory with the Russian convoy. On May 25, he entered Gdańsk, where he met with representatives of the Prussian "patriots" party, discussing with them political matters concerning Prussia and the Elbing-Ermland (now Warmia-Masuria) disputes. According to the court of St. Petersburg Radziwiłł then traveled, by passing Königsberg, to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Near the border Colonel Karr's troops joined the main convoy. On June 3, he was enthusiastically greeted by the citizens of Vilnius, while entering the city. He then travelled from Vilnius to Białystok to meet Branicki, who a month earlier, in a letter, expressed his joy for the Russian-Prussian demand of "restoration of ancient rights and liberties", and for "oppressed patriots to return to total wealth and prerogatives." On the June 11, in Brańsk, he was elected the Speaker of the newly created by Branicki Podlaski Confederation. Inauguration act of the confederation which called for the defense "of faith and freedom", was later supported by the Bar Confederation. On 13 June he arrived in Radom. All the time he was accompanied by Col. Karr and his soldiers. He then was appointed the Speaker of the General Confederation and foretold that he would obey all of the demands of Repnin. On June 21, under the command of Karr, Radziwiłł wrote a short letter to Stanisław Augustus, declaring his "faithfulness to the king and the Crown". On June 23, after the official establishment of the General Confederation in Radom, Radziwiłł was elected its marshal - the same day he sent a letter to Catherine, thanking her for the aid.

General Radom Confederation[edit]

The General Radom Confederation, at the point of its inauguration, cancelled the Grodno Decree of 1764. Radziwiłł received all of his lost titles, however, Repnin kept him under strict surveillance and did not allow him to receive the seized goods and estates until 23 June. Later the General Confederation issued a policy that annulled all the decrees against Radziwiłł and he finally regained his "lost" fortune. The General Court of the confederation approved on July 13, the acquisition of goods ex possesso from curators rewarded by the Czartoryski family, making an exception for the Massalski family that previously resigned from the position. Radziwiłł, reluctant like the other leaders residing in Radom to Repnin's decision of moving the generality seat and headquarters to Warsaw, tried to dissuade him (On July 21 he even a letter to Rzewuski in this matter), pointing out the alleged danger lurking on the Confederation from the furious and aggressive Czartoryski clan in the capital, as most of the residences and palaces in Warsaw belonged to Czartoryski and the family possessed the largest army reserves in all of Europe. The fear of the "Czartoryski army and influence" has gone so far that Colonel Karr stated that he prefers to leave everything and flee abroad, rather fight alongside Radziwiłł and declare himself the detainee. Repnin persuaded Karr that under the protection of Catherine II, he is secure in the Commonwealth, and that the allied army of Russia, Prussia and Austria would make Czartoryski "crawl" on the floor. Additionally, Radziwiłł specifically requested that the Russian infantry would guard his Warsaw residence, rather than the Polish Royal Guard forces of the King. On 27 July Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł left Radom and already 3 days later he sent, from Warsaw to determined Brzostowski, Repnin's list of future members of parliament and specific instructions. After Radziwiłł performed all of the demands, Repnin was convinced that with the help from the "East" and the help from the Prussian king, the power and influence of the mighty and wealthy Czartoryski family will soon die and with it the entire "King Poniatowski" era.

Although not a member of the political party or the social movement, Radziwiłł soon became the Marshal General of the entire Radom Confederation. In this function, because of the intensifying political atmosphere in the country, he was always obedient to the orders of General Repnin.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations

Sources

  • "Paris 1er - La rue Radziwill". Paristoric. Retrieved 2013-05-27. 
  • "Radziwiłł, Karol Stanisław 'Panie Kochanku'" ("Karol Stanisław 'My Dear Sir' Radziwiłł"), Encyklopedia Polski (Encyclopedia of Poland), Kraków, Wydawnictwo Ryszard Kluszczyński, 1996, ISBN 83-86328-60-6, p. 564.