Kartel (electoral alliance)
In a system of proportional representation in which the country is divided in multiple electoral districts, such as Belgium the threshold to obtain one seat can be very high (5% of votes since 2003), which also favours larger parties. Therefore some parties pool their voters in order to gain more (or any) seats.
Vlaams Kartels in Brussels
On several occasions some or all Flemish parties bundled forces on 'Vlaams Kartel' lists for municipal elections in Brussels (in Dutch Vlaams Kartel), sometimes getting together one or two seats in the municipal council, sometimes getting none. As these parties are minority parties in every Brussels municipality, i.e., the parties of an ethnic or linguistic minority (on the average 10-15% of the population), this is a case of an electoral coalition of ethnic parties.
There were such kartel lists, whose composition differed from one municipality to another, in Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe in 1976 and 1982, in Oudergem in 1976, 1982 and 1988, in Anderlecht in 1988, in Etterbeek in 1976, 1982 and 1988, in Sint-Gillis in 1976, 1982, in Sint-Joost-ten-Node in 1982 and 2000.
Current Belgian kartels
Federal & regional elections
- Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats, composed of Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Vivant and Liberal Appeal
- Mouvement Réformateur, composed of Liberal Reformist Party, Citizens' Movement for Change and PFF
Provincial & municipal elections
- Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams/Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie
- Socialistische Partij Anders/FlemishProgressives
- Mouvement Réformateur/Fédéralistes Démocrates Francophones