The province is divided into the Kasaï and Lulua districts, with their headquarters in the towns of Luebo and Tshimbulu. Cities with independent administrations are Kananga in the Lulua district and Tshikapa in the Kasai district. Cities and towns, with their 2010 populations, are:
Under the 2006 constitution, Kasaï-Occidental was to have been divided into two provinces by 18 February 2009. Kasai District and the city of Tshikapa were to combine and become a new Kasai Province, and Lulua District would be combined with the city of Kananga to form the new Lulua Province. As of October 2010, this had not taken place.