Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū

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Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū
(鹿島神傳直心影流)
Houjou.jpg
Foundation
Founder Matsumoto (Sugimoto) Bizen-no-Kami Naokatsu (松本 備前守 尚勝)
Date founded c. 1570
Period founded Late Muromachi period (1336–1573)
Location founded Japan Kashima (鹿嶋市), Japan (日本)
Current information
Current headmaster Yoshida Hijime
Arts taught
Art Description
Kenjutsuōdachi and kodachi Sword art – long and short sword
Ancestor schools
Kage-ryū (Aizu)Shinkage-ryūKashima Shinryu
Descendant schools
Daitō-ryūShindō Yōshin-ryūShintō Musō-ryū
Not to be confused with Kashima Shin-ryū or Kashima Shintō-ryū.

Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū (鹿島神傳直心影流?), often referred to simply as Jikishinkage-ryū or Kashima Shinden, is a traditional school (koryū) of the Japanese martial art of swordsmanship (kenjutsu). The school was founded in the mid-16th century, based upon older styles of swordsmanship, and is one of the few ancient Japanese martial arts schools still existing today.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū can be translated as the "divinely transmitted, honest reflection of the heart, school of Kashima."

By repetitive practice, one maintains a constant connection with the cosmos by aspiring to jikishin (直心) unwavering intention and seimeishin (生命心) perfect clarity of mind, just like a cloudless sky on a brilliant sunny day. A practitioner who has attained heightened jikishin and seimeishin is said to have fudōshin (不動心) immovable heart.[9]

History[edit]

The Jikishinkage-ryū style descends from the kenjutsu styles developed in the late Muromachi period which overlaps the early Sengoku period, or better dated as late 15th or early 16th century, at the Kashima Shrine by the founder, Matsumoto Bizen-no-Kami Naokatsu (松本 備前守 尚勝, 1467–1524).[1] The direct predecessors of the Jikishinkage-ryū style are the Shinkage-ryū and the Kage-ryū (Aizu) styles.

The Jikishin Kage-ryū Kenjutsu comes from a previous school, Kage-ryū Kenjutsu. A samurai (侍) called Aizu Iko founded Kage-ryū in 1490.[4] He perfected, and taught his style around Japan. There are evidence from 1525, that another samurai, Kamiizumi Ise-no-Kami Nobutsuna (1508–1548) is teaching his own style, a form of Kage-ryū kenjutsu. He called it Shinkage-ryū (the school of the new shadow). Jikishin Kage-ryū means 'the newest school of the ancient shadow'. He was denoting with the name, to the ancestors, and expressing respect to his former masters. Matsumoto Bizen no Kami Naokatsu was a famous master of this school, he also founded his own school first called Kashima Shinryū, then Kashima Shinden Jiki Shinkage-ryū. These schools can be found even today all around the world. There are more variations like Jikishin Kage-ryū, Seito Shinkage-ryū, etc.

During the 19th century, Jiki Shinkage-ryū was one of the most popular schools of combative swordsmanship (kenjutsu) in eastern Japan, especially in the Edo area. The 14th headmaster or sōke (宗家) of Jikishin Kage-ryū Kenjutsu—Sakakibara Kenkichi—was one of the most well-known swordsmen of his time, and the personal bodyguard of the Shogun.[10]

Sakakibara had hundreds of students during his lifetime, many of them rising to the "rank" of menkyo kaiden (免許皆伝) and shihan (師範), thus able to pass on the full tradition. At least 20 menkyo kaiden can be found in official listing of successors.[11] Some of them derived their own branch lines. His most talented disciple was Yamada Jirōkichi (山田 次朗) from whom the Seito-ha (正統派), which means main line system or traditional school.

A less well-known, but highly skilled, menkyo kaiden ranked student was Matsudaira Yasutoshi, who, like Yamada Jirōkichi, studied the more traditional ways of Jikishin Kage-ryū. The best apprentice of Yasutoshi was Makita Shigekats, a young man from a samurai family from Hokkaidō. His name, and Jikishin Kage-ryū became famous on the northern island in the times of the Japanese civil war in 1868.[citation needed] By sword fighting, he was an expert in kyūdō (弓道), Japanese archery.[citation needed] He was the heir of the title of shihan of Jikishinkage-ryū, but unfortunately he was fighting a losing battle against the Emperor in the revolution. The cast of the samurai was disbanded, and he had to run. Later, he returned to Hokkaidō, and opened his own dōjō, called Jikishin Kan Dōjō. He was teaching various martial arts, not just kenjutsu. His dōjō was popular, in spite of the prohibition of the katana in 1876.[12]

After Shigekatsu's death, the village of Atsuta raised a black granite obelisk in his memory. This memorial can be seen today. The family tradition has been taken by his grandson, Kimiyoshi Suzuki. Kimiyoshi is also a master of Goju-ryu Karate and Jikishin Kage-ryū Kenjutsu.[5][12]

There were many other famous practitioners of Jiki Shinkage-ryū under Sakakibara who did not reach the highest levels of the system and consequently were not named as successors. Perhaps the most famous of these was Sokaku Takeda, founder of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu. In contrast, some writers have claimed that other famous historical personages such as Muso Gonnosuke were in the line of transmission of Jiki Shinkage-ryu. However, Gonnosuke was never in the direct lineage of Jiki Shinkage-ryu.

Characteristics[edit]

Dōjō at Kashima Shinden. Kashima city, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan

The Jikishinkage-ryū style has many differences when compared to modern kendō. We can readily point out the different footwork and breathing.

The unpō (運法) is the footwork used in the Jikishinkage-ryū style and can be translated as law, rule or method (for) transporting, conveying or carrying ('walking'). Unlike the suriashi of modern kendo, it is stressed that both feet stay firmly planted on the ground at all times. The kiai (気合) consists not only of the shouting, like most martial arts, but of the proper way of inhaling and state of mind as well. This is even more reflected in the synchronous deep breathing called Aum () (or a-un) with one's partner which accompanies most movements.[9]

Every kata (形) has two distinct roles called uchidachi (打太刀) the striking/attacking sword and shidachi (受太刀) the doing/receiving sword. Some parts of the kata are identical for both roles, like the kamihanen (上半円) upper semicircle and shimohanen (下半円) lower semicrcle (also called johanen and gehanen). These are unconventional waza (技) techniques and characteristic for this style. Roughly, the swordsman draws a semicircle (upwards or downwards) with both his right hand (holding the sword), and his left hand (free). He finishes the movement with his arms extended, the sword pointing upwards, and the free hand's index finger pointing downwards. These movements can be considered as a greeting and a form of meditation, and are usually executed in the beginning and end of a kata or suburi (素振り) session. They represent all the things in heaven and all the things in earth, and the practitioner in the center of everything.

Another typical technique is the morōde (両腕) both arms movement in which uchidachi raises with both arms the sword of shidachi to jōdan and receives the subsequent uchikomi with the side of the blade. This results in thrusting the left arm forwards and turning both arms outwards to allow to absorb shidachi's cut which is in kiritsuki style like performed by a kaishakunin (介錯人).

Jikishinkage-ryū exponents train with both ōdachi (大太刀) and kodachi (小太刀) (but not both at once).

Clothing[edit]

Kenjutsu was practiced in a thick kimono (keikoga) in the old times. It was needed for protection, though it was sometimes still not enough. Practices are far less dangerous nowadays, the standard clothes in kenjutsu are normal keikogi (稽古着) and hakama (袴). Preferably all pieces are in the same colour of dark blue or, when one seriously dedicates the practice to the kami (神), in white. To prevent treading on the hakama when moving in a low position, the hakama is raised a bit by neatly folding the left and right outside front pleats up under the straps which are tied around the waist, before training commences.[4] It is possible to wear tabi (足袋) when necessary.

For outdoor practice, jika-tabi (地下足袋) are worn. As uchidachi always faces sun, this role can be very blinding, but it is not allowed to wear sunglasses or hats. However, in extremely cold conditions one can wear a hat (without sun reflector) and other extra protective clothing. When one has not enough hair or eyebrows or in extreme hot conditions, one can wear a tenugui (手拭い) or hachimaki (鉢巻) to prevent sweat irritating the eyes or to keep hair out of the face. Note that tabi and jiki-tabi should preferably match the colour of the hakama.

It is prohibited to wear jewellery and the like as is custom in many martial arts. This rule is to prevent injuries to oneself and practicing partner as it is to prevent excessive display of ego and unneeded distractions.

Some practitioners wear aikidogi (合気道着) or karategi (空手着). In some groups beginners wear white obi (帯), intermediates wear blue and brown obi and advanced wear black obi with hakama. Others practice in hakama without colored obi.

Ranks[edit]

The following licenses exist the Seito-ha (main line recognized by Kashima Shrine).

rank level requirements
shomokuroku (初目録) disciple must show competence in Hōjō no kata
jomokuroku (助目録) disciple must show competence in Tō no kata
reikenden disciple must show competence in Kodachi no kata
kyuri-no-maki kyōshi (教師) disciple must show deep understanding of the nature of Jikishinkage-ryū and show competence in Habiki no kata
goku-i shihandai (師範弟) disciple has been initiated in Marubashi no kata
menkyo (免許) shihan (師範) disciple has mastered the system

Over the years the trainee should begin showing competence in leading/teaching the system. Consequently usually, but not always, the student receiving kyuri-no-maki is at the level of kyoshi (assistant instructor); the student receiving goku-i is at the level of shihandai (associate instructor); and the recipient of menkyo is at the level of shihan (master instructor). However, according to Yoshida Hijime (吉田基), the current (20th) headmaster of the Seito-ha, only a shihan may teach independently of the headmaster. A restriction not necessarily followed in other lines.

For Shinbukan, the following applies:

rank belt color title type
3rd kyū Ceinture blanche.png white mudansha (無段者)
2nd kyū Ceinture bleue.png blue mudansha
1st kyū Ceinture marron.png brown reiken mudansha
1st dan Ceinture noire.png black kirigami yūdansha (有段者)
2nd dan Ceinture noire.png black mokuroku (目録) yūdansha
3rd dan Ceinture noire.png black menkyo yūdansha

The highest rank disciples of Kimiyoshi Suzuki sensei are 2nd dan black belts (mokuroku). The exams for belts are held once in a year, in the summer training camp. A person can take only one exam in a year.[12]

In some groups, hakama can only be worn by those who successfully completed their 1st dan exam. This is mainly done for practical reasons. One is that the teacher can see how the student positions his or her legs and feet. Another reason is that the teacher and students can quickly see whom to call upon for assistance. In more traditional groups, everyone wears hakama.[12]

Kihon[edit]

Basic technique and movements are shown in the table below.

category basic other
te no uchi (手の内) grip
kamae (構) posture
  • gyaku hassō
  • waki gamae
  • irimi seigan
  • niō dachi
  • chokuritsu seigan
  • chokuritsu jodan
  • chokuritsu gedan
  • chokuritsu hassō
  • etc.
ashi sabaki (足捌き) foot work unpō
  • okuri ashi
  • ayumi ashi
  • tsugi ashi (migi, hidari)
  • soroe ashi
  • fumikomi ashi (migi, hidari)
  • hiraki ashi (shomen, naname, soroe, etc.)
  • kosa-ashi
  • kirikaeshi
  • etc.
seme-waza (attack)
  • shomen
  • yokomen
  • dogiri
  • tsuki (突き)
  • kote
  • kesakiri
  • kiriage
  • tsubamegaeshi
  • ashikiri
  • tai-atari
  • ashi barai
  • atemi (seiken tsuki, uraken uchi, etc.)
  • keri (mawashi geri, mae geri, etc.)
  • nage (kotegaeshi, etc.)
  • etc.
uke-waza (protect)
  • nagashi uke
  • suriage
  • ashidome
  • otoshi uke
  • harai uke
  • kaeshi uke
  • maki otoshi
  • shin no uke
  • nuki
  • osae uke
  • etc.
kiai
  • "a"
  • "um"

Traditional kata[edit]

The following five classical or orthodox kata are the only ones practiced in Japan today and were established in this order by the time of Yamada Heizaemon Ippusai in the late 17th century.[5][13] Instead of the extension 'no kata', the kata in Yamada's book have the extension 'no bu' (之部), which means section (of this book). Kimiyoshi Suzuki's students in Shinbukan also practice these classical katas and this lineage practises its own set of katas preparing for the classical ones.[12]

Hōjō[edit]

Hōjō no kata, spring season

The Hōjō no kata (法定之形) is the first classic kata of the Jikishinkage-ryū style and can be translated as laws, rules or methods ('principals') (which are) definitive, crucial or stable ('fundamental') or fundamental principals, i.e. the basics. Both the shidachi and the uchidachi usually use wooden swords, bokken (木剣) or bokutō (木刀), although real swords, shinken (真剣), can be used as well.[4][9][12]

The Hōjō no kata is composed of four stages which are named after the four seasons, namely haru (春) spring, natsu (夏) summer, aki (秋) autumn and fuyu (冬) winter in order of execution. Each season contains from six to eight waza (movement). Before each season is executed the kamihanen, and after each season, the shimohanen.[4][9][14]

Each season has a respective pace, kōan (公案) theme, footwork, breathing, kiai, and other features reminiscent of the perceived characteristics of that season. Spring has waza which are executed in a smooth and fast manner, accompanied by loud kiai. The kōan of spring is eight-directions explosive-blast which can be translated as all directions. Summer has movements that are explosive and intense. The kōan of summer is one-sword both-cut which can be translated as cutting your ego. Autumn has a varied pace, symbolizing change. The kōan of autumn is right-turn left-turn which can be translated as times of change. Winter movements are slow, reserved but firm and efficient. This is even more accentuated on the footwork of each season. The kōan of winter is long-short one-body. The following example is an illustration of this principle. Imagine a situation where one person has a yari (槍) or naginata (長刀 or 薙刀), which stands for long, and the other a has sword, which stands for short, but the situation is as such that there is no more discussion, any discussion at this point would be superfluous. This metaphor tries to explain the meaning behind this kōan that in this season life and death are one.[5]

The themes of the four seasons refer to universal principles which also express themselves in other manifestations.[5] Some of these are listed in the table below.

stage name kōan tempo stage of life time of day temperature
ipponme (一本目)
1st stage
haru no tachi (春の太刀)
spring sword
hassō happa (八相発破)
eight-directions explosive-blast
acceleration childhood morning warming
nihonme (ニ本目)
2nd stage
natsu no tachi (夏の太刀)
summer sword
itto ryōdan (一刀両断)
one-sword both-cut
fast adolescence afternoon heat
sanbonme (三本目)
3rd stage
aki no tachi (秋の太刀)
autumn sword
uten saten (右転左転)
right-turn left-turn
deceleration maturity evening cooling
yonhonme (四本目)
4th stage
fuyu no tachi (冬の太刀)
winter sword
chotan ichimi (長短一身)
long-short one-body
slow old age night cold

Both uchidachi and shidachi take on a stance in spring and autumn which is called nio dachi. This refers to the pair of guardian deities of Buddhism called niō (仁王), which can be found as large statues at entrances of some of the ancient Japanese temples and shrines. The right statue is called Misshaku Kongō (密迹金剛) who has his mouth opened, this represents vocalization of "a." The left statue is called Naraen Kongō (那羅延金剛) who has his mouth closed, represents the vocalization of "um."

It is said that these two characters together symbolize the birth and death of all things, like we are born with "a" and our mouth open (inhale) and we die with "um" and our mouth closed (exhale). This is similar to "Alpha and Omega" or "A to Z" signifying "beginning and end", "everything" or "all creation." The contraction of both is Aum (Devanagari ), which is an important concept in Sanskrit. The stances and expressions of the statues, the sounds "a" and "um" and the symbolism behind this are very import in the Hōjō no kata.[5]

The 15th headmaster wrote this on the meaning of the Hōjō no kata:

Fukuro Shinai no kata (Tō no kata)[edit]

The Fukuro Shinai no kata (韜之形), or Tō no kata as it is also named, is the second kata of the Jikishinkage-ryū style. The kanji 韜 is rare and old and is able to read as "tō" but has the meaning of fukuro (袋).[7]

This kata is composed of fourteen stages, divided in six groups. Each stage has about four movements. This kata is characterized by very fast waza. Both the uchidachi and the shidachi use fukuro shinai (袋竹刀) which explains the origin on the name.[4][5]

Fukuro Shinai no kata
stage name
ipponme (一本目) 1st stage ryubi hidari (龍尾 左) dragon tail left
nihonme (二本目) 2nd stage ryubi migi (龍尾 右) dragon tail right
sanbonme (三本目) 3rd stage menkage hidari (面影 左) face left
yonhonme (四本目) 4th stage menkage migi (面影 右) face right
gohonme (五本目) 5th stage teppa (鉄破) iron breaking
ropponme (六本目) 6th stage teppa (鉄破) iron breaking
nanahonme (七本目) 7th stage teppa (鉄破) iron breaking
hachihonme (八本目) 8th stage teppa (鉄破) iron breaking
kyūhonme (九本目) 9th stage matsukaze hidari (松風 左) (sound of) the wind through pine trees left
jūpponme (十本目) 10th stage matsukaze migi (松風 右) (sound of) the wind through pine trees right
jūipponme (十一本目) 11th stage hayafune hidari (早船 左) early boat left
jūnihonme (十二本目) 12th stage hayafune migi (早船 右) early boat right
jūsanbonme (十三本目) 13th stage kyoku-shaku (曲尺) carpenter's square (for checking angles)
jūyonhonme (十四本目) 14th stage enren (圓連) circle take/bring

Kodachi no kata[edit]

The third kata in the ryū, the Kodachi no kata (小太刀之形) has six stages. Shidachi uses a large heavy wooden kodachi (like the name of the kata), and uchidachi uses a standard kendo style bokuto or a fukuro shinai. All the three stages of this kata have shidachi running into "combat" with uchidachi. Jikishinkage-ryū is unique because the kodachi is used with two hands on the tsuka.[4][5][12]

Kodachi no kata
stage name
ipponme (一本目) 1st stage husei (風勢)
nihonme (二本目) 2nd stage suisei (水勢) 
sanbonme (三本目) 3rd stage kissaki kaeshi (切先返)
yonhonme (四本目) 4th stage tsuba-tori (chakin-fukusa) (鍔取 (茶巾袱紗))
gohonme (五本目) 5th stage toppi-ouhi (突非押非)
ropponme (六本目) 6th stage enkai (圓快)

Habiki no kata[edit]

The fourth kata is called Habiki no kata (刃挽之形) or Koryū (古流)[12] kata and it is a blend of concepts from Hōjō no kata and Fukuro Shinai no kata. Both shidachi and uchidachi use habiki (a sword without a sharp edge) in this kata set. In several places both shidachi and uchidachi end up on one foot after cutting. There are four kata (the second and the third stages are is one block) in Habiki no kata, and they are the old version of Hōjō no kata.[4][5][12]

stage name
ipponme (一本目) 1st stage hassō happa (八相発破)
nihonme (二本目) 2nd stage itto ryōdan (一刀両断)
sanbonme (三本目) 3rd stage uten saten (右転左転)
yonhonme (四本目) 4th stage chotan ichimi (長短一身)

Marubashi no kata[edit]

The Marubashi no kata (丸橋之形) is the most advanced kata, it focuses on very difficult kiai and subtle movement. To the casual observer it looks as though nothing is happening in the kata at all. Shidachi uses kodachi and uchidachi uses odachi. Like the last set of kata both use shinken.[12]

This kata used to be a secret. It is not clear when the secrecy was lifted but the kata is, like the other five, described with text and photographs in the book of Yamada Jirōkichi that was published in the early 20th century (1927).

stage name
ipponme (一本目) 1st stage hassōken (hasso) (八相剣) eight directions sword
nihonme (二本目) 2nd stage teiken (hissa) (提剣) carry sword
sanbonme (三本目) 3rd stage suishaken (suisha) (水車剣) water wheel sword
yonhonme (四本目) 4th stage enkaiken (enkai) (圓快剣) comfortable circle sword
gohonme (五本目) 5th stage marubashiken (enbashi) (圓橋剣) circle sword

List of representatives[edit]

The table below depicts the Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū kenjutsu lineage which spans over five centuries.l

sōke ryū name Seito-ha Hyakuren-kai
founder Kashima Shin(kage)ryū Matsumoto (Sugimoto) Bizen-no-Kami (松本備前守, 1467–1524)
2nd Shinkage-ryū Kamiizumi Ise-no-Kami Nobutsuna (上泉伊勢守信綱, 1508–1577)
3rd Okuyama Kyūkasai Taira no Kimishige (奥山休賀斎平公重, 1528–1602)
4th Shin Shinkage-ryū Ogasawara Genshinsai Minamoto no Nagaharu (小笠原源信斎源長冶, 1574–1644)
5th Shinkage Jikishin-ryū Kamiya Denshinsai Sadamitsu (神谷伝心斎直光, 1582–1663)
6th Jikishin Seitō-ichi-ryū Takahashi Danjōzaemon Shigeharu (高橋弾正左衛門重治, 1610–1690)
7th Jikishinkage-ryū Yamada Heizaemon Mitsunori (Ippūsai) (山田平左衛門光徳(一風斎), 1638–1718)
8th Naganuma Kunisato Shirozaemon (長沼四郎左衛門国郷, 1688–1767)
9th Naganuma Shirozaemon Fujiwara no Yorihito (長沼活然斎藤原綱郷, 1702–1772)
10th Fujikawa Yashirō Uemon Fujiwara no Yorihito (藤川彌司郎右衛門尉藤原近義, 1726–1798)
11th Akaishi Chikayoshi (赤石近義, 1749–1825)
12th Dannō Gennoshin Yoshitaka (團野源之進義高, 1761–1849)
13th Odani Shimosa-no-kami Nobutomo (男谷下總守信友, 1798–1864)
14th Sakakibara Kenkichi (榊原鍵吉, 1830–1894)[10]
15th Yamada Jirōkichi
(山田 次朗吉, 1863–1930)[9]
Nomi Teijiro
(野見錠次郎)
Matsudaira Yasutoshi
(松平, 1835–1880)
16th Kawashima Takashi
(川島 堯)
Ōmori Sōgen
(大森 曹玄, 1904–1994)
Nomi Hamao Makita Shigekatsu
(牧田 重勝, 1849–1914)
17th Ōnishi Hidetaka
(大西英隆,
1906–1966)
Terayama Katsujo
(1938–2007)
Ishigaki Yasuzou
(石垣安造)
Suzuki Kimiyoshi
(鈴木公宜, 1934)
18th Namiki Yasushi
(並木靖,
1926–1999)
17thheadmaster:
[Hyakuren Kai
1st Leader]
Hayakawa Kōichi
(早川幸市)
 ?
19th Itō Masayuki
(伊藤雅之,
c. 1930–2001)
18thheadmaster:
[Hyakuren Kai
2nd Leader]
Iwasa Masaru
(岩佐勝, 1945)
20th Yoshida Hijime
(吉田基, c. 1945)
headmaster ryū name Seito-ha Hyakuren-kai Nomi-ha Shinbukan

Present day practice[edit]

The table below lists places where groups currently are practicing Jikishinkage-ryū Kenjutsu can be found.

continent country city kata lineage
Asia Japan Japan Tōkyō (東京) all classical[15] Yoshida Hijime
Asia Japan Japan Kōbe (神戸市) all classical[15]
Asia Japan Japan Yokohama (横浜市) all classical[15]
Europe Czech Republic Czech Republic Praha Hōjō[16][17] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Germany Germany Berlin[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Germany Germany Röblingen am See, Saxony-Anhalt[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Germany Germany Reutlingen, Baden Wurttemberg[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Hungary Hungary Budapest[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Hungary Hungary Gödöllő[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Hungary Hungary Pécs[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Hungary Hungary Dunakeszi[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Hungary Hungary Kecskemét[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Italy Italy Turin Hōjō, Tō[20] Namiki Yasushi via Hideki Hosokawa
Europe Italy Italy Imperia Hōjō[21] Namiki Yasushi via Hideki Hosokawa
Europe Italy Italy La Spezia Hōjō[22] Namiki Yasushi via Hideki Hosokawa
Europe Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Skopje Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Netherlands Netherlands Utrecht Hōjō, Tō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Hōjō[23] Namiki Yasushi via Hideki Hosokawa
Europe Serbia Serbia Beograd Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Serbia Serbia Novi Sad Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Serbia Serbia Vršac Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Serbia Serbia Niš Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Slovakia Slovakia Sereď[18] classical and Shinbukan katas[19] Matsudaira Yasutoshi via Suzuki Kimiyoshi
Europe Slovakia Slovakia Bratislava Hōjō Namiki Yasush via Masatomi Ikeda[24]
Europe Switzerland Switzerland Aarau Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Switzerland Switzerland Basel Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Switzerland Switzerland La Chaux-de-Fonds Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Switzerland Switzerland Neuchâtel Hōjō, Tō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Switzerland Switzerland Zürich[16] Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
Europe Switzerland Switzerland Winterthur[16] Hōjō[16] Namiki Yasushi via Masatomi Ikeda
North America United States USA Rockville, Maryland classical[15] Namiki Yasushi
North America United States USA Chicago, Illinois Hōjō[25][26] Ōmori Sōgen
North America United States USA Honolulu, Hawaii Hōjō[27][28] Ōmori Sōgen
continent country city kata lineage

See also[edit]

Japanese martial arts terms

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Koryu Bujutsu: Classical Warrior Traditions of Japan, volume 1 by Skoss, Diane (Editor). New Jersey, Koryu Books, 1997. ISBN 1-890536-04-0.
  2. ^ Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryu. Koryu Books, 2002.
  3. ^ Jikishinkage-ryu kenjutsu. Koryu Books, 2002.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h (Japanese) Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryu. The Origin of Samurai-Swordsmanship from KASHIMA SHRINE, The God of BUSHIDO KASHIMA – A Symbol of Justice by the Sword. by Masaru Iwasa. Japan, SAMURAI-BUSHIDO SOCIETY, 2005, hardcover. ISBN 4-900785-24-5.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Japanese) Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryū 鹿島神傳直心影流 by Yamada Jirōkichi 山田 次朗吉. Suishinsha, hardcover, 1927.
  6. ^ (Japanese) Kashima Shinden Jiki Shinkage-ryū Gokui Denkai『鹿島神伝直心影流極意伝開』by Ishigaki Yasuzō 石垣安造. Japan, Tōkyō, Shinjusha 新樹社, 1992, hardcover. ISBN 4-7875-8407-3.
  7. ^ a b (Japanese) Jiki Shinkage-ryū Kenjutsu with Ōmori Sōgen. Japan, Nihon Kobudo series, filmed during the 1970s by the Japanese Ministry of Education in a series on many of the traditional koryū. DVD, 2005.
  8. ^ (Italian) Aikido Anno XXXIX: Jikishinkage ryu kenjutsu by Aikikai d'Italia, Italy. translation
  9. ^ a b c d e f KATEIGAHO International Edition (KIE), JAPAN'S ARTS & CULTURE, 2008 WINTER ISSUE VOL. 18, Mastering Budo by SEKAI BUNKA PUBLISHING INC.. Tokyo, Japan, magazine, 2008, pages 70 – 73. ISBN 978-4-418-07143-2.
  10. ^ a b Hiiragi, Takefumi (1994). "Famous Swordsmen of Japan (1): Kenkichi Sakakibara". Aikido Journal. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  11. ^ Bugei Ryuha Daijiten (Encyclopedia of Martial art schools), Watatani and Yamada, 1978, pages 155 - 156.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (English)/(Hungarian)/(Romanian) Jikishin Kage-ryu Kenjutsu – Shinbukan
  13. ^ (Japanese) 鹿島神傳直心影流 Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-ryu – Official site describing the five kata. translation
  14. ^ Hōjō kata. Sanshinkai Aikido, 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d Nihon Kobudo Kyokai 30th Anniversary. Koryu Books. 2009.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Sanshinkai Aikido
  17. ^ (Czech) Hojo aneb Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage-Ryu
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Hungarian) Shinbukan clubs
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i (Hungarian) Classical katas in Shinbukan
  20. ^ (Italian) Kishintai Aikido Dojo. translation
  21. ^ (Italian) Scuola Aikido Aikikai Imperia. translation
  22. ^ (Italian) Dojo Nippon La Spezia. translation
  23. ^ Yuki Mizu Kumo.
  24. ^ (Slovak) Aikido dojo Bratislava. translation
  25. ^ Daiyuzenji, Rinzai Zen Temple. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Practising only Hōjō kata.
  26. ^ Shinjinkai, The Japanese Martial Arts Society. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Practising only Hōjō kata which is conducted by Daiyuzenji, Rinzai Zen Temple also in Chicago, USA.
  27. ^ Chozen-ji Zen Training System and Ōmori Sōgen Institute of Zen Studies. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Practising only Hōjō kata.
  28. ^ Zen Training at Chozen-ji. Daihonzan Chozen-ji International Zen Dojo. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Practising only Hōjō kata.

External links[edit]