Kashin (Russian: Ка́шин) is a town and the administrative center of Kashinsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia, located around a rural agricultural area on the Kashinka River (Volga's tributary) 204 kilometers (127 mi) from Moscow and 25 kilometers (16 mi) from Kalyazin. Population: 16,171 (2010 Census); 17,299 (2002 Census); 21,186 (1989 Census); 18,000 (1970).
The telephone code for Kashin is 08234.
The town of Kashin was first mentioned in a chronicle under the year of 1238, when it was sacked by the Mongols. It was given by Grand Duke Mikhail Yaroslavich as an appanage to his son Vasily, who founded a short-lived dynasty of local princes. Mikhail Yaroslavich's wife Anna took the veil in Kashin's nunnery and died there on October 2, 1368 and was glorified by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1650 as a holy patroness of all women who suffer the loss of relatives. Her miracle-working relics are preserved in the Ascension Cathedral of Kashin.
In 1382, Kashin was annexed by the Principality of Tver. From 1399 to 1426, it was held by a second dynasty of Kashin princes, which claimed their seniority in the house of Tver. In 1452, Kashin withstood a siege by Dmitry Shemyaka. It finally passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1486 with the rest of the Principality of Tver. In 1708, the town became a part of Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate), but in 1727 it was transferred to Moscow Governorate. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and Kashinsky Uyezd with the center in Kashin was established. In 1796, Tver Viceroyalty was transformed into Tver Governorate. On October 3, 1927 Kashinsky Uyezd was abolished and split between Bezhetsky and Kimrsky Uyezds.
On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Kashinsky District, with the administrative center in the Kashin, was established within Bezhetsk Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Kashin was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.
During the present day, Kashin remains an economically important location in the Tver Oblast. For example, Kashin is home to Veresk, one of the largest alcoholic drink producing companies in the region. Another major business is the mineral water company ERA which produces the Kashinskaya brand of mineral water.
There are also an electric equipment company, a wool factory, and a milk and meat-processing company. There is a resort area near Kashin where many residents of the oblast spend their vacation near the Kashinka River.
There are several architectural monuments in Kashin, including monasteries, churches, and cathedrals. The most ancient of these, a wooden chapel from 1646, was burned to the ground in 1998. The town is also known as a balneological resort.
The town contains thirty-six cultural heritage monuments of federal significance, including the ensemble of the Presentation Monastery and a number of churches built in the 18th and the 19th centuries.
Kashin is home to numerous places of entertainment. During the day, the most popular entertainment locations are the pool house, internet cafes, and computer clubs. One of the computer clubs is located in the former church, Uspensky Sobor, which is now a recreation center. During the nighttime, the recreation center occasionally hosts a nightclub. On holidays and special dates, the town hosts large festivals which involve dancing, food, and various performances.
Several times a week, a Bazaar takes place in the main square of the town. In it, residents of the town can sell various items, sometimes rare antiques. Also, fruit and vegetables from nearby rural farms are sold.
The Museum of Local Lore is located in Kashin. Also, in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa, situated 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Kashin, the house of Mikhail Kalinin, a Soviet politician, is located.
The mean temperature in Kashin is −11 °C (12 °F) in January and +18 °C (64 °F) in July.
There are low-price buses traveling around the town and nearby region throughout the day. For longer range transport, there are shuttle buses traveling to nearby cities: Tver, Moscow, and Yaroslavl. Also, there is a train traveling twice a day throughout Kashin. The morning train travels from Sonkovo to Savyolovo, while the afternoon train travels in the opposite direction. The passengers can easily travel from Savyolovo to Moscow via the elektrichka train. Several times a week, a train from Saint Petersburg passes the station.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
- "Кашинский краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- "Мемориальный дом-музей М.И. Калинина" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article&nbp;2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №28-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Кашинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №19-ЗО от 13 апреля 2009 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение №1 к Закону Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Кашинский район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #28-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Kashinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #19-ZO of April 13, 2009 On Amending Appendix 1 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Kashinsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Official website of Kashin
- History and monuments of Kashin
- Resurrection Cathedral (Kashin)
- Church of the Entry into Jerusalem (Kashin)
- Church of SS. Peter and Paul (Kashin)