Kashk

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Kashk, Qurut
Kesk-meledi1.jpg
Kurdish women preparing kashk in a village at Turkey
Alternative name(s) Dried yoghurt
Place of origin Turkey, Lebnon, Iran, Azebeijan, Tibet, Mongolia, Iraq, Afghanistan
Region or state Central Asia, Middle East, Anatolia Kurdistan
Main ingredient(s) Yoghurt, salt
Other information %21.60- 39.31 water, % 4.5-23.5 fat, %31.22-50.68 protein ve %2.84-13.19 salt [1]
Qurut being sold in Tajikistan.

Kashk (Persian: کشک‎, Kurdish: keşk, Turkish: keş peyniri, kurut, surk, taş yoğurt, kurutulmuş yoğurt, Turkmen: gurt, Azerbaijani: qurut, Bashkir: ҡорот, Tatar: qort, chortan [chor, meaning "dried", plus tahn], Armenian: չորթան, Mongolian: ааруул) is used in a large family of foods found in Afghan, Kurdish, Baloch, Iranian, Palestinian, Egyptian, Lebanese and Central Asian cuisine.

Kashk is made from drained sour milk or yogurt by forming it and letting it dry. It can be made in a variety of forms, including rolled into balls, sliced into strips, and formed into chunks.

Uses[edit]

Kashk is a sort of gruel.[2] It is eaten plain, but can be used other ways. For example, it can be dissolved in water and eaten like yogurt. In western parts of Azerbaijan, it's customary to dissolve qurut in water by hand and use the sauce with xəngəl, the traditional Azerbaijani lasagna-type dish. Qurut dissolved in water is a primary ingredient of qurutob, a traditional Persian dish in Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Iran. One of the main dishes in Afghanistan is kichree qurut, made with mung beans, rice and qurut dissolved in water. It is sometimes salted, and in Inner Mongolia can be flavoured and distributed as candy.

There are three main kinds of food with this name: foods based on curdled milk products like yogurt or cheese; foods based on barley broth, bread, or flour; and foods based on cereals combined with curdled milk. In Turkish and Greek cuisine, there are closely related foods called tarhana or trahana.

History[edit]

Qurt (transliterated as Kurt) from Central Asian cuisine

Chortan is mentioned in the Armenian epic poem, Sasuntsi Davit, as an oral tradition dating from 8th-century, which was first put into written form in 1873. Kashk is also mentioned in the 10th-century Persian book of poetry Shahnameh. In fact it must have come from khoshk (Persian : خشک meaning "dry") which indicates that the Kashk or Kishk is prepared through a drying [خشکیدن] process. Qurut or kurut means dried in Turkic languages.[3]

Iran[edit]

In modern Iran, kashk is a thick whitish liquid similar to whey (a dairy product) similar to sour cream, used in traditional Persian/Iranian cuisine and Kurdish cuisine, like ash reshteh, kashk e bademjan, kale joush. It is available as a liquid or in a dried form, which needs to be soaked and softened before it can be used in cooking. Kashk was traditionally produced from the leftovers of cheese-making (more specifically, the milk used to make it). The procedure is, subtracting butter from milk, the remainder is doogh which can be used as the base for kashk. The water is subtracted from this whitish beverage and what remains is kashk which can be dried. Iranian kashk has made an appearance in US markets in the past half-century by several Iranian grocers starting with Kashk Hendessi.

Levant[edit]

In Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria, Kishk is a powdery cereal of burghul (cracked wheat) fermented with milk and laban (yogurt). It is easily stored and is valuable to the winter diet of isolated villagers or country people. Kishk is prepared in early Autumn when the wheat crop is harvested. Milk, laban and burghul are mixed well together and allowed to ferment for nine days. Each morning the mixture is thoroughly kneaded with the hands. When fermentation is complete the kishk is spread on a clean cloth to dry. Finally it is rubbed well between the hands until it is reduced to a powder and then stored in a dry place. In Jordan a dried yoghurt similar to kashk called Jameed is commonly used.

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey, kashk is a dried yoghurt product also known as keş peyniri, kurut, taş yoğurt, kuru yoğurt, or katık keşi.[4] Its contents and production vary by region. In western and northern Turkey, especially in Bolu, the product is categorized as a cheese owing to its shape and white color. In eastern Turkey, especially Erzincan, Erzurum, and Kars, kurut is produced from skimmed yoghurt made from the whey left over from production of butter by the yayık method,[5] and then crushed or rolled. In parts of southeastern Turkey with a significant Kurdish population, it is called keşk. All versions of this dairy product are salty. It is used as an ingredient in soups, keşkek, erişte, etc.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Karabulut I, Hayaloğlu AA, Yıldırım H. 2007. Thinlayer drying characteristics of kurut, a Turkish dried dairy by-product. Int J Food Sci Technol, 42, 1080–1086.
  • Françoise Aubaile-Sallenave, "Al-Kishk: the past and present of a complex culinary practice", in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East, London and New York, 1994 and 2000, ISBN 1-86064-603-4.
  • Liu WJ, Sun ZH, Zhang YB, Zhang CL, Menghebilige, Yang M, Sun TS, Bao QH, Chen W, Zhang HP. A survey of the bacterial composition of kurut from Tibet using a culture-independent approach. J Dairy Sci. 2012 Mar;95(3):1064-72. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-4119.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Z. Tarakçı, M. Dervişoğlu, H. Temiz, O. Aydemir, F. Yazıcı, REVIEW ON KES CHEESE, GIDA (2010) 35 (4) 283-288
  2. ^ Anthony Bryer - 'The Bizantine Porridge' in 'Studies in medieval history presented to R.H.C. Davis' By Ralph Henry Carless Davis, Henry Mayr-Harting, Robert Ian Moore
  3. ^ Z. Tarakçı, M. Dervişoğlu, H. Temiz, O. Aydemir, F. Yazıcı, REVIEW ON KES CHEESE, GIDA (2010) 35 (4) 283-288
  4. ^ http://cahidejibek.com/tag/kurutulmus-yogurt/
  5. ^ Karabulut I, Hayaloğlu AA, Yıldırım H. 2007. Thinlayer drying characteristics of kurut, a Turkish dried dairy by-product. Int J Food Sci Technol, 42, 1080–1086.