Kashmiri literature

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Kashmiri literature (Kashmiri: कॉशुर साहित्य, کٲشُر ساہتیہ) has a history of at least 5,000 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. Early names include Patanjali, the author of the Mahabhashya commentary on Pāṇini's grammar, suggested by some to have been the same to write the Hindu treatise known as the Yogasutra, and Dridhbala, who revised the Charaka Samhita of Ayurveda.

In medieval times the great Kashmir Valley School of Art, Culture and Philosophy Kashmir Shaivism arose. Its great masters include Vasugupta (c. 800), Utpala (c. 925), Abhinavagupta, and Kshemaraja. In the theory of aesthetics one can list the Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta. Many generations later, in our modern times, a new lease of life given, to same "school of thought" was given by Swami Lakshman Joo of Ishbher/Gupta Ganga, Srinagar, India.

Kashmiri language literature[edit]

The use of the Kashmiri language began with the work Mahanayakaprakash (Light of the supreme lord) by Shitikantha (c.1250),[1] and was followed by the poet Lalleshvari or Lal Ded (14th century), who wrote mystical verses in the vakh or four-line couplet style.[2] Another mystic of her time equally revered in Kashmir and popularly known as Nunda Reshi wrote powerful poetry like his senior Lal Ded. Later came Habba Khatun (16th century) with her own style. Other major names are Rupa Bhavani (1621–1721), Arnimal (d. 1800), Mahmud Gami (1765–1855), Rasul Mir (d. 1870), Paramananda (1791–1864), Maqbool Shah Kralawari (1820–1976). Also, the Sufi poets like Shamas Fakir, Wahab Khar, Soch Kral, Samad Mir, and Ahad Zargar. Among modern poets are Ghulam Ahmad Mahjur (1885–1952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1903–1948), and Zinda Kaul (1884–1965).

During the 1950s, a number of well educated youth turned to Kashmiri writing, both poetry and prose, and enriched modern Kashmiri writing by leaps and bounds. Among these writers are Dinanath Nadim (1916–1988), Rahman Rahi, Ghulam Nabi Firaq, Ali Muhammed Shahbaz, Mushtaq Kashmiri, Amin Kamil (1923-),[3] Ali Mohd Lone, Akhtar Mohiuddin, Som Nath Zutshi, Muzaffar Aazim,[4] and Sarvanand Kaul 'Premi'. Some later day writers are Hari Krishan Kaul, Majrooh Rashid, Rattanlal Shant, Hirdhey Kaul Bharti, Omkar N Koul, Roop Krishen Bhat, Rafiq Raaz, Tariq Shehraz, Shafi Shauq, Nazir Jahangir, M H Zaffar, Shenaz Rashid,Shabir Ahmad Shabir, Nisar Azam, Shabir Magami,[5] Moti Lal Kemmu (playwright).

Contemporary Kashmiri literature appears in Sheeraza published by the Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Anhar published by the Kashmirri Department of the Kashmir University, and an independent magazine Neab International Kashmiri Magazine[6] published from Boston, Vaakh an independent publication and Koshur Samachar.

Ancient writers in Sanskrit[edit]

Writers in Persian[edit]

After Sanskrit and before the coming Urdu, because of the adoration and patronising policy of foreign culture by the Mughals, Persian became the literary language also of the region. Kashmir was very richly represented in that tradition, as already before the end of the 18th century "Muhammad Aslah's tazkira of the Persian-writing poets of Kashmir, written during the reign of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah (1131-61/1719-48), alone lists 303 poets".[39] Late scholar from Pakistan, Pir Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi, edited, translated, and enlarged this work later, and had it published by the Iqbal Academy.

The most famous of them was Muhammad Tahir Ghani (d. 1669), better known as Ghani Kashmiri, who's poetry was recently translated into English, for the first time, by Mufti Mudasir Farooqi and Nusrat Bazaz as 'The Captured Gazelle' in the world-renowned Penguin Classics list. Ghani influenced many generations of Persian-and Urdu writing poets in South Asia including Mir Taqi Mir, Ghalib and most importantly, Iqbal. Ghani's "forte" lies in creating delightful poetic images, usually by stating an abstract idea in the first hemistich and following it up with a concrete exemplification in the other.He also stands out for his multi-layered poems, which exploit the double meaning of words.

Another name is the Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi (1521-1595), a 16th-century Sufi poet-philosopher who was internationally acknowledged and who had for students, amongst others, well-known religious scholar Ahmad Sirhindi (more particularly, he taught him hadith)[40][41] and Persian-language poet Mohsin Fani Kashmiri (d. 1671 or 1672) (himself the teacher of Ghani Kashmiri and author of the pivotal work of comparative religion, the Dabestan-e Mazaheb).

Other of the well-known and influential Persian-language poets of Kashmir would include Habibullah Ghanai (1556-1617), Mirza Dirab Big Juya (d. 1707), Mirza Beg Akmal Kamil (1645-1719), Muhammad Aslam Salim (d. 1718), Mulla Muhammad Taufiq (1765), Muhammed Azam Didamari (d. 1765), Mulla Muhammad Hamid (1848) or Birbal Kachru Varasta (d. 1865), amongst a myriad.

Writers in Urdu[edit]

Despite being a numerically reduced community (less than one million), the Kashmiri Pandits are over-represented in their contribution to Urdu literature. One important early example is Daya Shankar Kaul Nasim (1811–1845), a renowned Urdu poet of the 19th century, and hundreds of others followed his path.[42]

Some eminent Urdu literary personalities of Kashmiri origins (from both the Valley and the diaspora) include (in chronological order):

Writers in Hindi[edit]

Writers in English[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sisir Kumar Das (2006). A history of Indian literature, AD.500-1399: from courtly to the popular.. Sahitya Akademi. p. 193. "Scholars consider _Mahanayakaprakash_ (Light of the supreme lord) by Shitikantha (c.1250) as the earliest work in Kashmiri language." 
  2. ^ Lal Ded; Ranjit Hoskote (tr.);. I, Lalla : Poems of Lal Ded. Penguin 2011. 
  3. ^ "Amin Kamil - Kashmiri literature, Kashmiri poetry". Kamil.neabinternational.org. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  4. ^ http://kashmirilanguage.com.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Welcome To the Homepage of LALDED". Lalded.8k.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  6. ^ Neab International Kashmiri Magazine
  7. ^ Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, History of Science and Technology in Ancient India, Firma K.L Mukhopadhyaya (1986), pp. 486-494
  8. ^ Satya Prakash, Founders of Sciences in Ancient India (part II), Vijay Kumar (1989), p.471
  9. ^ B.S. Yadav & Man Mohan, Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics, Birkhäuser (2011), p. 78
  10. ^ M. I. Mikhailov & N. S. Mikhailov, Key to the Vedas, Minsk-Vilnius (2005), p. 105
  11. ^ Sures Chandra Banerji, A Companion to Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass (1989), p. 59
  12. ^ Helaine Selin, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1997), p. 977
  13. ^ Martin Levey, Early Arabic Pharmacology: An Introduction Based on Ancient and Medieval Sources, Brill Archive (1973), p. 10
  14. ^ P. N. K. Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir - Volume 1, M D Publications (1994), p.268
  15. ^ S.K. Sopory, Glimpses Of Kashmir, APH Publishing Corporation (2004), p. 62
  16. ^ Krishan Lal Kalla, The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications (1985), p.65
  17. ^ Guang Xing, The Concept of the Buddha, RoutledgeCurzon (2005), p. 26
  18. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO Ltd (2004), p. 621
  19. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicine: Historical perspective, Popular Prakashan (1985), p. 100
  20. ^ Ram Gopal, Kālidāsa: His Art and Culture, Concept Publishing Company (1984), p.3
  21. ^ P. N. K. Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir - Volume 1, M D Publications (1994), p.261-262
  22. ^ M. K. Kaw, Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society, APH Publishing Corporation (2004), p.388
  23. ^ Claus Vogel, Vāgbhaṭa Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā. The First Five Chapters of Its Tibetan Version, Franz Steiner (1965), p.13
  24. ^ Anna Akasoy & co., Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes, Ashgate Publishing Limited (2011), p.76
  25. ^ Richard Pischel, A Grammar of the Prakrit Languages, Motilal Banarsidass (1999), p. 43
  26. ^ Satya Ranjan Banerjee, The Eastern School of Prakrit Grammarians: A Linguistic Study, Vidyasagar Pustak Mandir (1977), p. 31
  27. ^ Kamaleswar Bhattacharya, India & Beyond, Routledge (2009), p. 2
  28. ^ John E. Cort, Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, State University of New York Press (1998), p.57
  29. ^ Kolar Sesha Iyer Nagarajan, Contribution of Kashmir to Sanskrit literature, V.B. Soobbiah (1970), p. 426
  30. ^ R.N. Rai, Karanasara Of Vatesvara, Indian National Science Academy (1970), vol. 6, n. I, p. 34
  31. ^ Vaṭeśvara, Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta and Gola of Vaṭeśvara: English translation and commentary, National Commission for the Compilation of History of Sciences in India (1985), p. xxvii
  32. ^ P. N. K. Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir - Volume 1, M D Publications (1994), p.269
  33. ^ Sheldon Pollock, Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia, University of California Press (2003), p. 112
  34. ^ Bina Chatterjee (introduction by), The Khandakhadyaka of Brahmagupta, Motilal Banarsidass (1970), p. 13
  35. ^ Lallanji Gopal, History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. 1200 A.D., Concept Publishing Company (2008), p. 603
  36. ^ Kosla Vepa, Astronomical Dating of Events & Select Vignettes from Indian History, Indic Studies Foundation (2008), p. 372
  37. ^ Dwijendra Narayan Jha (edited by), The feudal order: state, society, and ideology in early medieval India, Manohar Publishers & Distributors (2000), p. 276
  38. ^ P. N. K. Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir - Volume 1, M D Publications (1994), p.269
  39. ^ Collective, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 6, p. 980
  40. ^ Anna Zelkina, In Quest for God and Freedom: The Sufi Response to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers (200), p. 88
  41. ^ Irshad Alam, Faith Practice and Piety: An Excerpt from the Maktūbāt, Sufi Peace Mission (2006), p. 20
  42. ^ Shri Ram Bakshi, Kashmir: Valley and Its Culture, Sarun & Son (1997), p. 165
  43. ^ Hamid Afaq Qureshi, The Mughals, the English & the rulers of Awadh, from 1722 A.D. to 1856 A.D., New Royal Book Co (2003), p.79
  44. ^ Amaresh Misra, Lucknow, fire of grace: the story of its revolution, renaissance and the aftermath, HarperCollins Publishers India (1998), p. 57
  45. ^ Purnendu Basu, Oudh and the East India Company, 1785-1801, Maxwell Company (1943), p. 22
  46. ^ Simon Schaffer, The Brokered World: Go-Betweens and Global Intelligence, 1770-1820, Science History Publications (2009), p. 53
  47. ^ Surendra Mohan, Awadh Under the Nawabs: Politics, Culture, and Communal Relations, 1722-1856, Manohar Publishers & Distributors (1997), p.80
  48. ^ Edited by Bernard Lightman, The Circulation of Knowledge Between Britain, India and China, BRILL (2013), p.67
  49. ^ Abida Samiuddin, Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Urdu Literature, Global Vision Publishing House (2008), p. 94
  50. ^ Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Persian poetry of Mirza Ghalib, Pen Productions (2000), p. 7
  51. ^ K.C. Kanda, Masterpieces of Urdu Ghazal from the 17th to the 20th Century, Sterling (1992), p. 182
  52. ^ K.C. Kanda, Masterpieces of Urdu Ghazal from the 17th to the 20th Century, Sterling (1992), p. 182
  53. ^ Ali Jawad Zaidi, A History of Urdu literature, Sahitya Akademi (1993), p. 181
  54. ^ D.J. Matthews, Urdu Literature, South Asia Books (1985), p. 86
  55. ^ A website on Dr Khalifa Abdul Hakim maintained by a relative and with a lot of bibliographical resources
  56. ^ Punjab’s Kashmir connection
  57. ^ "Taufiq Rafat - the Ezra Pound of Pakistan". The Nation. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2014-04-18. 

External links[edit]