Kate Carroll a pioneer, who received a B.A. in Chemistry, from Mills College in 1996 and her Ph.D. in Chemistry from Stanford University in 2003. Carroll, using her strong background in chemistry and biology worked on protein cysteine oxidation as a new paradigm for the regulation of cell signaling pathways. Carroll Using her findings on post-translational modification and how proteins after synthesis affect their function has won her the Pfizer Award in Enzyme Chemistry. This award is given to an individual under 40 who has outstanding work in this subject area. This award stimulates fundamental research in enzyme chemistry.