Catherine Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith

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Catherine Courtney
Catherine Potter.jpg
Catherine Courtney in 1883
Born Catherine Potter
(1847-04-04) April 4, 1847 (age 167)
Herefordshire, England, United Kingdom
Died February 26, 1929(1929-02-26) (aged 81)
Chelsea, London, England, United Kingdom
Nationality English
Other names Baroness Courtney of Penwith
Occupation Social worker
15 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London, where Courtney once lived

Catherine "Kate" Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith (née Potter; 4 April 1847 – 26 February 1929), was a British social worker and internationalist. Active in charitable organisations in her early life, she later campaigned with her husband and fellow Quaker Leonard Courtney to end the Second Boer War and the First World War. She sought to bring attention to the plight of citizens of the enemy nations and was denounced as being overly sympathetic to the enemy during both wars.

Early life[edit]

Catherine Potter was born at Gayton Hall, Herefordshire. She was the second daughter of the businessman Richard Potter and his wife Lawrencina (née Heyworth), daughter of a Liverpool merchant. Her seven younger sisters included the social reformer Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, while Charles Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor, and Henry Hobhouse were among her brothers-in-law. Mostly educated at home by tutors, she briefly attended a London boarding school for girls in the 1860s.[1] She was not regarded as particularly clever or beautiful,[2] and strongly disliked seasons and socialising with the upper class.[3] After her coming out party in 1865, she strived for independence and resisted her parents' attempts to marry her off.[1]

Work in the slums[edit]

In 1875, after a particularly difficult year, the 28-year-old Kate Potter left her family home and went to London to enlist in the activities of Octavia Hill and started training for the Charity Organization Society in Whitechapel, as well as working as an organiser of an East End boys' clubs, before joining Samuel Augustus and Henrietta Barnett in their philanthropic work.[1] Her parents frowned upon her decision, as did her elder sister Lawrencina, but ultimately granted her a small allowance which enabled her to settle in Great College Street in Westminster. She stayed in touch with her family and they often complained about her forcing them to attend "poor people's parties", which they escaped as soon as they could.[4]

For the next eight years, she worked at St Jude's Church, Kensington.[3] As Hill's full-time aide from 1876 until 1883, Kate Potter's duties included running youth clubs and collecting rents.[4] The tight work schedule that she maintained helped her to avoid dealing with her family's expectations.[5] Her friendliness made her popular even as a rent collector, and she eventually managed to persuade her sisters Theresa and Beatrice to join her.[3] In 1884, model dwellings in Aldgate in which she worked were named after her – Katharine Buildings.[3]

Marriage[edit]

Lord and Lady Courtney in 1916
Catherine Courtney in 1898, by Sir John Benjamin Stone

Catherine Potter met the 48-year-old Leonard Courtney, then Liberal cabinet minister, in 1880,[1] and became friends with him at Charles Booth's dinner parties.[4] Potter and Courtney married on 15 March 1883.[1] Both were Quakers[6] and they were happily married for 35 years. Despite their hopes to have children and Catherine's fertility operation in 1888, the couple remained childless.[5] Under her husband's influence, she became a suffragist and Liberal Unionist.[1] Marriage, however, required her to relinquish her earlier activities for the sake of homemaking and supporting her husband's career.[5] They founded the South Africa Conciliation Committee in 1899.[7] In the 1890s, she became leader of the Women's Liberal Unionist Association but was disappointed by its conservatism and imperialism and resigned from the association's committee on 24 October 1900.[1] Meanwhile, the Courtneys were significant supporters of the Zulu welfare activist Harriette Colenso, daughter of Bishop John Colenso.[7]

Wartime activities[edit]

The Courtneys actively campaigned for world peace. They were accused of being "pro-Boers" during the Second Boer War, receiving anonymous threatening letters, and Catherine was called "pro-Hun" after the First World War by the Daily Sketch. She actively supported negotiating the end of both wars, joining the 1899 armistice campaign of Emily Hobhouse, and later aligning herself with Jane Addams' attempts to negotiate peace during the First World War, with the help of neutral nations.[1]

Throughout 1901, she informed the British public of conditions inside the British concentration camps built for Boer women and children. In 1906, her husband was elevated to peerage and she became Baroness Courtney of Penwith. Lady Courtney championed the "innocent enemies" of the First World War and participated in the founding of an emergency committee aimed at helping German civilians living in Britain. She visited German prisoners of war and publicised the work of her German counterparts in Berlin. She unsuccessfully pleaded with the Home Office to enable German civilians to remain in Britain.[1]

When she and 180 other British women were denied permission to travel to The Hague to attend a peace convocation, Lady Courtney immediately sought the help of her friend, the Lord Chancellor, who agreed to intercede with the Home Secretary Reginald McKenna. The next day, she phoned McKenna and secured the permission for 24 women, but only three were eventually able to attend.[8]

Widowhood and death[edit]

Lady Courtney was widowed in May 1918. In January the next year, she hosted the first meeting of the Fight the Famine Committee at her home in Cheyne Walk; the Save the Children Fund developed from that committee.[1] Along with her former brother-in-law, Lord Parmoor, Lady Courtney campaigned for ending the blockade of Germany.[9] She wrote to The Daily News in 1920, saying that "somebody must begin to be good if the better world we were promised is ever to come". She died in Cheyne Walk in 1929 and was buried at Chelsea Old Church.[1]

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Richard Potter
 
Lawrencina Potter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Catherine Courtney
 
Leonard Courtney
 
Theresa Cripps
 
Charles Cripps
 
Marian Cripps
 
Margaret Hobhouse
 
Henry Hobhouse
 
Beatrice Webb
 
Sidney Webb
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stafford Cripps
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Stephen Hobhouse
 
Arthur Hobhouse
 
 
 
 
 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Oldfield, Sybil, "Courtney, Catherine", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press) 
  2. ^ Oldfield, Sybil (2000). Alternatives to militarism 1900–1989: women against the iron fist. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0773477659. 
  3. ^ a b c d Roodenburg, Herman (2004). Social Control in Europe: 1800–2000. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0814209696. 
  4. ^ a b c Ross, Ellen (2007). Slum Travelers: Ladies and London Poverty, 1860–1920. University of California Press. ISBN 0520249054. 
  5. ^ a b c Caine, Barbara (1996). Destined to be wives: the sisters of Beatrice Webb. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198200544. 
  6. ^ Pennell, Catriona (2012), A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199590583 
  7. ^ a b Storr, Katherine (2009), Excluded from the Record: Women, Refugees and Relief, 1914–1929, Peter Lang, ISBN 3039118552 
  8. ^ Patterson, David S. (2012), The Search for Negotiated Peace: Women's Activism and Citizen Diplomacy in World War I, Routledge, ISBN 0415961416 
  9. ^ Veerman, Philip E. (1992), The Rights of the Child and the Changing Image of Childhood, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, ISBN 0792312503