Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington
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|Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington|
Kennedy wearing an American Red Cross uniform in London, c. 1943
|Born||Kathleen Agnes Kennedy
February 20, 1920
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Died||May 13, 1948
Saint-Bauzile, Ardèche, France
Cause of death
|St. Peter's Churchyard|
|Education||Riverdale Country School
Noroton Convent of the Sacred Heart
Holy Child Convent
|Alma mater||Queen's College, London
Florida Commercial College
|Spouse(s)||William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington (m. 1944–44) (his death)|
|Parents||Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
|Relatives||See: Kennedy family|
Kathleen Agnes Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (née Kennedy; February 20, 1920 – May 13, 1948) was an American socialite. She was the fourth child and second daughter of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. (1888–1969) and Rose Fitzgerald (1890–1995). She was a sister of future U.S. President John F. Kennedy (1917–1963) and widow of the Marquess of Hartington (1917–1944), a soldier and politician.
Kathleen Agnes Kennedy was born in Brookline, Massachusetts and nicknamed "Kick" by most who knew her. She and her older brother John (known as "Jack") were particularly close throughout their lives despite their three-year difference in age.
Kick was educated at Riverdale Country School in the Riverdale section of the Bronx, New York. She also attended Noroton Convent of the Sacred Heart in Noroton, Connecticut and the Holy Child Convent in Neuilly, France. Like all the Kennedy children, she learned early on the importance of being a winner and that succeeding was the only way to win her father's approval. While the Kennedy daughters were not raised to have political ambitions like their brothers, they were nonetheless provided with many of the same educational and social opportunities owing to their father's powerful connections and influence while growing up. This was particularly the case when Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt as United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom in 1938.
Kennedy's time in England during her father's appointment as Ambassador would dramatically influence the remainder of her life. While living in England, she was educated in London at Queen's College and quickly cultivated a wide circle of friends, both male and female, in British high society and was declared the "debutant of 1938" by the English media. With war with Germany imminent following the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the entire Kennedy family, save for Ambassador Kennedy, returned to the United States. Kennedy, having become very fond of England and the many friends she had made, petitioned her parents to remain in London in spite of the coming danger but was overruled by her father and sailed back home in the early fall.
After returning to the States, Kennedy enrolled at the Finch School for a time and then attended Florida Commercial College. In addition to her studies, Kennedy also began doing volunteer work for the Red Cross. In 1941, she decided to leave school and began working as a research assistant for Frank Waldrop, the executive editor for the Washington Times-Herald. She later teamed with Inga Arvad, who wrote the "Did You Happen to See....." column and was eventually given her own column where she reviewed films and plays.
In 1943, seeking a way to return to England, Kennedy signed up to work in a center for servicemen set up by the Red Cross. During her time in England, both before and particularly during the war, she gradually but increasingly grew more independent from her family and the Catholic Church. During this time, Kennedy began a romantic relationship with politician William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington. He was the eldest son and heir apparent of the Duke of Devonshire.
The two had met and began a friendship when she moved to England when her father was appointed Ambassador. Despite objections from her mother Rose, she and Hartington reunited upon her return to England. She married Hartington on May 6, 1944 in a civil ceremony at the Caxton Hall Registry Office. Her eldest brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., whom she had grown close to during the last year of his life, was the only member of the Kennedy family to attend the ceremony. On August 12, 1944, Joe Jr. was killed when his plane exploded during a top-secret bombing mission in Europe.
Kathleen and Hartington spent less than five weeks together before he went out to fight in Germany. Four months after their marriage, and less than a month after Joe Jr. was killed, Hartington was killed by a sniper during a battle near the German Front. With his family's blessing, he was buried close to where he fell. His younger brother Lord Andrew Cavendish, who was married to Deborah Mitford of the famous Mitford sisters, thus became the heir apparent to the dukedom as Hartington had left no heirs.
Popular on the London social circuit and admired by many for her high spirits and wit, Lady Hartington eventually became romantically involved with the Earl Fitzwilliam. Fitzwilliam was in the process of divorcing his wife. Once again, Rose Kennedy expressed her disapproval of her daughter's suitor and warned her that she would be disowned by the family and cut off financially if she married Fitzwilliam. In May 1948, Kathleen learned that her father would be traveling to Paris. In an effort to gain his consent for her upcoming plans to marry Fitzwilliam, she decided to fly to Paris to meet with her father.
On May 13, 1948, Kennedy and Fitzwilliam were flying from Paris to the French Riviera for a vacation. At 3:30 in the afternoon, their plane took off, reaching an altitude of 10,000 feet. Approximately one hour into the flight, radio contact was lost with the plane when it entered the region near Vienne which was also close to the center of a storm. The plane's four occupants endured twenty minutes of severe turbulence which bounced their small plane up and down as much as several thousand feet at a time.
When they finally cleared the clouds, they instantly discovered the plane was in a dive and moments away from impact, and they attempted to pull up. The stress of the turbulence coupled with the sudden change of direction tore loose one of the wings, followed by both engines and finally the tail. The plane's fuselage then spun into the ground seconds later, coming to rest nose down in a ravine after striking terrain near the summit of Le Coran, the highest of the Cevennes Mountains in the Saint-Bauzile, Ardèche, France. Kennedy was instantly killed along with Fitzwilliam, pilot Peter Townshend, and navigator Arthur Freeman.
Her father was the only family member to attend the funeral, arranged by the Cavendishes. Rose Kennedy refused to attend her daughter's memorial service, choosing to enter a hospital for routine medical tests.
- The gymnasium at Manhattanville College is named in Kathleen Kennedy's honor.
- Robert F. Kennedy named his eldest daughter in honor of his sister.
- "Kathleen Kennedy". jfklibrary.org.
- Buck, Pearl S. (August 4, 1970). "Kathleen put love before religion". The Montreal Gazette. p. 15.
- "Kathleen Kennedy Loses Husband in Action". The Pittsburgh Press. September 18, 1944. p. 2.
- "Kathleen Kennedy Flies From London". The Lewiston Daily Sun. August 17, 1944. p. 1.
- Bailey, C. (2007). Black Diamonds: The Rise and Fall of an English Dynasty, pp. 406-419. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-91542-2.
- Hilty, James (2000). Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector. Temple University Press. p. 52. ISBN 1-439-90519-3.
- Schenectady Gazette May 15, 1948.
- Kathleen Kennedy biography at John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum Site
- Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington at Find a Grave