Kathoey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Katoey)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Lady boy" redirects here. For the 1994 J-pop song, see Lady Boy (song).
"Ladyboys" redirects here. For the 1992 documentary film, see Ladyboys (film).
Nong Tum is perhaps the most internationally recognised Kathoey for her portrayal in the film Beautiful Boxer.

Kathoey or katoey (Thai: กะเทย; RTGS: Kathoei  [kàtʰɤːj]) is a Thai term that refers to either a transgender woman or an effeminate gay male in Thailand. A significant number of Thais perceive kathoeys as belonging to a third gender, including many kathoeys themselves, while others see them as either a kind of man or a kind of woman.[1] Related phrases include phet thi sam (Thai: เพศที่สาม, "third gender"), and sao praphet song or phu ying praphet song (Thai: สาวประเภทสอง, ผู้หญิงประเภทสอง— both meaning "second-type female"). The word kathoey is of Khmer origin.[2] It is most often rendered as ladyboy or lady boy in English conversation with Thais and this latter expression has become popular across South East Asia.

General description[edit]

The term "kathoey" is not an equivalent of the modern[citation needed] Western[citation needed] transsexual woman. Use of the term "kathoey" suggests that the person self-identifies as a type of male, in contrast to sao praphet song (which, like "trans woman", suggests a "female" (sao) gender identity), and in contrast to phet thi sam (which means "third gender"). The term phu ying praphet song, which can be translated as "second-type female", is also used to refer to kathoey.[3] Australian scholar of sexual politics in Thailand Peter Jackson claims that the term "kathoey" was used in premodern times to refer to intersex people, and that the usage changed in the middle of the twentieth century to cover cross-dressing males.[4] The term can refer to males who exhibit varying degrees of femininity – many kathoeys dress as women and undergo "feminising" medical procedures such as breast implants, hormones, silicone injections, or Adam's apple reductions. Others may wear makeup and use feminine pronouns, but dress as men, and are closer to the Western category of effeminate gay man than transgender.

The term "kathoey" may be considered pejorative, especially in the form "kathoey-saloey". It has a meaning similar to the English language "fairy" or "queen".[5]

Social context[edit]

Kathoey work in predominately female occupations, such as in shops, restaurants and beauty salons, but also in factories (a reflection of Thailand's high proportion of female industrial workers).[6] Kathoey also work in entertainment and tourist centers, in cabarets and as sex workers. Kathoey sex workers have high rates of HIV.[7]

Pattaya: Kathoeys on the stage of a cabaret show.

Kathoeys are more visible and more accepted in Thai culture than transgender or transsexual people are in Western countries or the Indian subcontinent. Several popular Thai models, singers and movie stars are kathoeys, and Thai newspapers often print photos of the winners of female and kathoey beauty contests side by side. The phenomenon is not restricted to urban areas; there are kathoeys in most villages, and kathoey beauty contests are commonly held as part of local fairs.

Using the notion of Karma, some Thai believe that being a kathoey is the result of transgressions in past lives, concluding that kathoey deserve pity rather than blame.[8]

A common stereotype is that older well-off kathoey provide financial support to young men with whom they are in a personal relationship.[9]

Kathoeys currently face many social and legal impediments. Families (and especially fathers) are typically disappointed if a son becomes a kathoey, and kathoeys often have to face the prospect of coming out. However, kathoey generally have greater acceptance in Thailand than most other Asian countries.[10] Legal recognition of kathoeys and transsexuals is non-existent in Thailand: even if transsexuals have had genital reassignment surgery, they are not allowed to change their legal sex. Discrimination in employment remains rampant.[11] Issues can also arise in regards to access to amenities and gender allocation; for example, a kathoey and a transsexual who has undergone sexual reassignment surgery would still have to stay in an all-male prison.

Recent developments[edit]

Kathoey working in a go-go bar in Bangkok's Nana Plaza entertainment area

In 1993, Thailand's teacher training colleges had implemented a semi-formal ban on allowing homosexual (which included kathoey) students enrolling in courses leading to qualification for positions in kindergartens and primary schools. In January 1997, the Rajabhat Institutes (the governing body of the colleges) announced it would formalize the ban, which would extend to all campuses at the start of the 1997 academic year. The ban was quietly rescinded later in the year, following the replacement of the Minister of Education.[12]

In 1996, a volleyball team composed mostly of gays and kathoeys, known as The Iron Ladies (Thai: สตรีเหล็ก, satree lek), later portrayed in two Thai movies, won the Thai national championship. The Thai government, concerned with the country's image, barred two of the kathoeys from joining the national team and competing internationally.

Among the most famous kathoeys in Thailand is Nong Tum, a former champion Thai boxer who emerged into the public eye in 1998. She would present in a feminine manner and had commenced hormone therapy while still a popular boxer; she would enter the ring with long hair and makeup, occasionally kissing a defeated opponent. She announced her retirement from professional boxing in 1999 – undergoing genital reassignment surgery, while continuing to work as a coach, and taking up acting and modeling. She returned to boxing in 2006.

In 2004, the Chiang Mai Technology School allocated a separate restroom for kathoeys, with an intertwined male and female symbol on the door. The 15 kathoey students are required to wear male clothing at school but are allowed to sport feminine hairdos. The restroom features four stalls, but no urinals.[13]

Following the 2006 Thai coup d'état, kathoeys are hoping for a new third sex to be added to passports and other official documents in a proposed new constitution.[14] In 2007, legislative efforts have begun to allow kathoeys to change their legal sex if they have undergone genital reassignment surgery; this latter restriction was controversially discussed in the community.[11]

Bell Nuntita, a contestant of Thailand's Got Talent TV shows, became a YouTube hit when she first performed singing as a girl, and the crowd become amazed when she switches to a masculine voice.[15]

Culture[edit]

Revues and music groups[edit]

The first all kathoey music group in Thailand was formed in 2006. It is named Venus Flytrap and was selected and promoted by Sony BMG Music Entertainment.[16]

The Lady Boys of Bangkok is a kathoey revue that has been performed in the UK since 1998 touring the country in both theatres and the famous "Sabai Pavilion" for 9 months each year.

Films[edit]

Ladyboys is a 1992 documentary film made for Channel 4 TV and directed by Jeremy Marre. It relates the story of two teenage kathoey who prepare for and enter a rural beauty contest and then leave for Pattaya to find work in a cabaret revue.

The story of the 1996 Iron Ladies volleyball team underlies the humorous and successful 2000 movie The Iron Ladies and the 2003 sequel The Iron Ladies 2.

The 2002 Thai film Saving Private Tootsie tells the story of a group of gays and kathoey who need to be rescued after a plane crash in rebel-held jungle territory. The film explores anti-gay attitudes in various ways. It is loosely based on an incident in December 1998 when a group including a popular singer and his kathoey makeup artist survived a plane crash.

The life of the kathoey kick boxer Nong Tum is related in the 2003 film Beautiful Boxer. Unlike The Iron Ladies 1 & 2, Beautiful Boxer used a serious tone.

In the 2005 Thai martial arts film The Warrior King the main villain is a kathoey, although references to this were edited out for the American release. She is played by Jin Xing who is transgender herself.

The extreme traveller show Madventures had a section on kathoeys on the third season.

In the 2011 American film The Hangover Part II, Stu has sex with a woman he didn't realise was kathoey (played by Yasmin Lee) while on a drug-induced bender in Bangkok.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Winter, Sam (2003). Research and discussion paper: Language and identity in transgender: gender wars and the case of the Thai kathoey. Paper presented at the Hawaii conference on Social Sciences, Waikiki, June 2003. Article online.
  2. ^ Jackson, Peter A. (April 1996). "Non-normative Sex/Gender Categories in the Theravada Buddhist Scriptures". Retrieved 5 December 2009. 
  3. ^ Jackson, Peter (1999). Lady Boys, Tom Boys, Rent Boys: Male and Female Homosexualities in Contemporary Thailand. Haworth Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-7890-0656-1. 
  4. ^ Jackson, Peter (2003). Performative Genders, Perverse Desires: A Bio-History of Thailand's Same-Sex and Transgender Cultures. in "Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context," Issue 9, August 2003. See paragraph "The Homosexualisation of Cross-Dressing."
  5. ^ CPAmedia.com: Thailand's Women of the Second Kind
  6. ^ Winter S, Udomsak N (2002). Male, Female and Transgender: Stereotypes and Self in Thailand. International Journal of Transgenderism. 6,1
  7. ^ "HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Kathoey (Male-to-Female Transgender) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand". AIDS Care 24 (2): 210–9. 2012. doi:10.1080/09540121.2011.597709. PMC 3242825. PMID 21780964. 
  8. ^ Totman, Richard (2003). The Third Sex: Kathoey: Thailand's Ladyboys. London: Souvenir Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-285-63668-5. 
  9. ^ Thailand, in the International Encyclopedia of Sexuality, Volume I–IV 1997–2001, edited by Robert T. Francoeur
  10. ^ "Boys Will Be Girls". Time Asia, Daffyd Roderick. [dead link] Retrieved 19 February 2008
  11. ^ a b Are you man enough to be a woman? Bangkok Post, 1 October 2007
  12. ^ Jackson, Peter (1999). Lady Boys, Tom Boys, Rent Boys: Male and Female Homosexualities in Contemporary Thailand. Haworth Press. pp. xv–xiv. ISBN 0-7890-0656-1. 
  13. ^ "Transvestites Get Their Own School Bathroom", Associated Press, 22 June 2004.
  14. ^ "Thailand’s ‘third sex’ seeks legal recognition". The First Post. 17 May 2007.
  15. ^ http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/the-rice-bowl/thai-transgender-talent-show-shocker-youtube-gold
  16. ^ "‘Katoeys’ hit the music scene", The Star, 3 February 2007.

External links[edit]