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The clay of the Rupelian era developed to a depth of approximately 70 m (230 ft) beneath a deposit of Neogene sand. The formation has a Miocene Era aquifer, while the clay level dates to the Pliocene.
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- Coetsiers, M.; Walraevens, K. (2009). "The Neogene Aquifer, Flanders, Belgium". In Edmunds, W. Mike; Shand, Paul. Natural groundwater quality. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444300352.
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