Kavadh I

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Kavadh I
"King of kings of Iran and Aniran"
KavadhIGoldenCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Image of Kavadh I on one of his coins.
Reign 488–496 (first reign)
498–531 (second reign)
Born 473
Died September 13, 531
Predecessor Balash, Djamasp
Successor Khosrau I
Issue Kawus
Khosrau I
Zamasp
Xerxes
Royal house House of Sasan
Father Peroz I
Religious beliefs Zoroastrianism

Kavadh I (Persian: قبادQabād or Qobād) (born circa 473,[1] Ctesiphon, modern-day Iraq; died September 13, 531[2] Syria; ruled 488–531) was the son of Peroz I (457–484) and the twentieth and twenty-first Sassanid king of Persia, reigning from 488 to 531. He was crowned by the nobles in place of his deposed and blinded uncle Balash (484–488).

Early life and accession[edit]

Kavadh I was born in 473.[1] After the Sasanian disaster at the battle of Herat, only few members of the royal line remained; according to Procopius, of the ca. 30 sons of Peroz I. He was however, in captivity under the Hephthalites, and was later rescued by the Karenid Sukhra, who managed to defeat their leader Khush-Newaz. After this victory, Kavadh and Sukhra returned to Ctesiphon, where Balash was crowned as king of the Empire. However, in reality it was Sukhra, who had control over the Sasanian Empire. Gushnaspdad, the kanarang of Abarshahr, urged the Sasanian nobles to have Kavadh executed.[3]

However, the Sasanian nobles declined the decision, and instead had Kavadh imprisoned, who later managed to escape, and took refugee in Central Asia. In 488, Kavadh returned to Persia with the aid of the Hephthalites,[4] and was joined by other Sasanian nobles, which included Adergoudounbades, a relative of Gushnaspdad. During the revolt of Kavadh, Sukhra told Balash that he was unsuitable to rule as the king of Ērānshahr, and had him deposed in favor of Kavadh.[5] The new Sasanian king then had Gushnaspdad executed,[6] who was replaced by Adergoudounbades as kanarang.[7]

Even after the ascension of a new Sasanian king, Sukhra still possessed massive amount of power; according to Ferdowsi, Sukhra controlled all except the kingly crown.[8] Al-Tabari says the following thing about Sukhra's power: "Sukhra was in charge of government of the kingdom and the management of affairs. The people came to Sukhra and undertook all their dealings with him, treating Kavadh as a person of no importance and regarding his commands with contempt."[9]

In 493 Kavadh I tried to reduce the power of Sukhra by sending him to his native city in Pars, and later with the aid of Shapur of Ray, defeated Sukhra's loyalists, and captured the latter. Sukhra was then brought to Ctesiphon where he was executed.[10][1]

Later life[edit]

Kavadh I gave his support to the communistic sect founded by Mazdak, son of Bamdad, who demanded that the rich should divide their wives and their wealth with the poor. His intention evidently was, by adopting the doctrine of the Mazdakites, to break the influence of powerful magnates from high classes such as the Wuzurgan.[11] The Wuzurgan then sided with the Zoroastrian clergy, and in 496 had him deposed and incarcerated in the "Castle of Oblivion (Lethe)" in Susiana, and his brother Djamasp (496–498) was raised to the throne.[12]

Kavadh, however, escaped and found refuge with the Hephthalites. In 498, with 30,000 troops from the Hephthalite king, and with the aid of Sukhra's son Zarmihr Karen,[13] Kavadh became king again and punished his opponents.[14] He also appointed Bozorgmehr, another son of Sukhra, as his minister.[15] Kavadh then appointed his son, Kawus, as the governor Padishkhwargar, and gave him the title of Padishkhwargar Shah (king of Padishkhwargar).[16]

In 529, the Mazdaki doctrine was formally refuted in a theological discussion held before the throne of the king by the orthodox Magians, and its adherents were slaughtered and persecuted everywhere; Mazdak himself was hanged.[17]

War against the Byzantines[edit]

Anastasian war[edit]

Kavadh I needed money to pay his debts to the Hephthalites who had helped him regain his throne, and applied for subsidies to the Byzantine Empire, which had before supported the Sasanians. But now the Emperor Anastasius I (491–518) refused subsidies, which made Kavadh try to gain the money by force.[18]

Map of the Roman-Persian frontier during the reign of Kavadh.

In 502, Kavadh captured Theodosiopolis, perhaps with local support; the city was in any case undefended by troops and weakly fortified.[19] Kavadh, along with Adergoudounbades, then besieged the fortress-city of Amida through the autumn and winter (502–503). The siege of the city proved to be a far more difficult enterprise than Kavadh expected; the defenders, although unsupported by troops, repelled the Persian assaults for three months before they were finally beaten.[20] The Romans attempted to recapture the city, they were, however, unsuccessful. Kavadh then tried to capture Edessa in Osroene, but was unsuccessful.[21]

In 505 an invasion of Armenia by the Huns from the Caucasus led to an armistice, during which the Romans paid subsidies to the Persians for the maintenance of the fortifications on the Caucasus,[22] and in return for Amida, which was captured by Kavadh. The peace treaty was signed by Bawi, the brother-in-law of Kavadh.[23][24]

Iberian war[edit]

In 524–525 , Kavadh proposed that Justin I adopt his youngest and favorite son, Khosrau, but the negotiations soon broke down. Kavadh then had Seoses, his negotiator, executed.[25] Hostility between the two powers erupted into conflict when Guaram I, the king of Caucasian Iberia, defected to the Romans in 524–525, after Kavadh tried to convert the Iberians to Zoroastrianism.[26] Sasanian and Roman fighting then broke out in the Transcaucasus region and upper Mesopotamia by 526–527.[27] Kavadh's Arab vassal, al-Mundhir IV ibn al-Mundhir, laid waste to Mesopotamia and slaughtered the monks and nuns.

In 530, Kavadh sent Perozes and Baresmanas at the head of 50,000 men[28] to capture Dara, the two generals, were, however, defeated and killed by the forces of Belisarius. In 531, the Persian general Azarethes managed to defeat Belisarius at the Battle of Callinicum.[29] However, the Sasanian losses were so high that Kavadh removed Azarethes from his post.

Kavadh I then organized another invasion of Byzantine territory, in which a large army, commanded by Mihr-Mihroe, Adergoudounbades and Bawi, invaded Mesopotamia and besieged the city of Martyropolis, which at that time was being protected by Buzes and Bessas.[30] However; with winter approaching and Byzantine reinforcements coming from Amida and the sudden death of Kavadh I, the Sasanians lifted the siege in November or December.[31]

Succession dispute[edit]

Kavadh I was succeeded by his youngest son Khosrau I, however, at the beginning of his reign in 531, Bawi, along with other members of the Persian aristocracy became involved in a conspiracy in which they tried to overthrow Khosrau I and make Kavadh, the son of Kavadh I’s second eldest son Zamasp (Zames)[32] the king of the Sasanian Empire. Upon learning the plot, Khosrau I executed all his brothers, their offsprings, along with Bawi and the other "Persian notables" who were involved.[24] Khosrau I also ordered the execution of Kavadh, who was still a child, and was away from the court, being raised by Adergoudounbades. Khosrau sent orders to kill Kavadh, but Adergoudounbades disobeyed and brought him up in secret, until he was betrayed to the shah in 541 by his own son, Bahram (Varranes). Khosrau had him executed, but Kavadh, or someone claiming to be him, managed to flee to the Byzantine Empire.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c KAWĀD I i. Reign, Nikolaus Schindel, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  2. ^ http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/313506/Kavadh-I
  3. ^ Pourshariati (2008), pp. 268–269
  4. ^ The Hephthalite Empire, B.A. Litvinsky, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, Vol III, Ed. Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, (UNESCO, 1996), 140.
  5. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 78
  6. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 268
  7. ^ Pourshariati (2008), pp. 268–269
  8. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 79
  9. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 78
  10. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 81
  11. ^ Richard Nelson Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, Vol.3, (Beck'sche Verlangbuchhandlung, 1984), 323.
  12. ^ Tafazzoli 1989, p. 427.
  13. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 113
  14. ^ The Hephthalite Empire, B.A. Litvinsky, 140.
  15. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 114
  16. ^ Pourshariati (2008), p. 288
  17. ^ Mazdak, Guido Michelangelo, E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936, Ed. M. Th. Houtsma, (Brill and Luzac & Co., 1987), 432.
  18. ^ Procopius. History of the Wars, I.7.1-2; Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 62.
  19. ^ Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 62.
  20. ^ Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 63.
  21. ^ Greatrex & Lieu 2002, pp. 69–71.
  22. ^ Procopius. History of the Wars, I.9.24; Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 77.
  23. ^ Procopius 2007, p. 83
  24. ^ a b Pourshariati 2008, p. 111
  25. ^ Procopius, Wars, I.11.23–30
    * Greatrex (2005), 487; Greatrex–Lieu (2002), II, 81–82
  26. ^ Greatrex–Lieu (2002), II, 82
  27. ^ Greatrex–Lieu (2002), II, 84
  28. ^ J. Haldon, The Byzantine Wars, 31
  29. ^ The Political History of Iran under the Sasanians, R.N. Frye, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol.3, Ed. Ehsan Yarshater, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 152.
  30. ^ Procopius 2007, p. 195
  31. ^ Greatrex 2002, pp. 95–96
  32. ^ Frye 1983, p. 465
  33. ^ Martindale, Jones & Morris 1992, pp. 16, 276; Pourshariati 2008, pp. 268–269; Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 112.

Sources[edit]

Kavadh I
Preceded by
Balash
Great King (Shah) of Persia
488–496
Succeeded by
Djamasp
Preceded by
Djamasp
Great King (Shah) of Persia
498–531
Succeeded by
Khosrau I