Kaveh the blacksmith

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For the city in Iran, see Rafi, Iran.
"Kaveh Ahangar" redirects here. For the administrative subdivision of Iran, see Kaveh Ahangar Rural District.

Kāveh the blacksmith (Persian: کاوه آهنگرKāveh Āhangar known as The Blacksmith of Isfahan or Kaveh of Isfahan,[1][2][3] is a mythical figure in Iranian mythology who leads a popular uprising against a ruthless foreign ruler, Zahhāk. His story is narrated in the epic of Shāhnāmeh, the national epic of Iran by the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi Tousi. Based on Avestan tradition, Zahhāk, or more correctly Azhi Dahāka, is from Babylonia and more or less a demon than a human. Ferdowsi masterfully recasts this mythical character as an evil tyrant.

Kaveh was, according to ancient legends, a blacksmith from Isfahan, Central Iran,[4][5][2][6][7] who launched a national uprising against the evil foreign tyrant Zahak after losing two of his children to Zahhāk's serpents. Kaveh expelled the foreigners and re-established the rule of the pure Iranian descent.[6] Many followed Kaveh to the Alborz Mountains in Damavand, where Fereydoun, son of Abtin and Faranak, was living. Then a young man, Fereydoun agreed to lead the people against Zahhak. Zahhak had already left his capital, which fell to Fereydoun's troops with small resistance. Fereydoun released all of Zahhak’s prisoners. Kaveh is the most famous of Persian mythological characters in resistance against despotic foreign rule in Iran. As a symbol of resistance and unity, he raises his leather apron on a spear, known as the Derafsh Kaviani. This flag is later decorated with precious jewels and becomes the symbol of Persian independence, resistance and resilience, as well as the revolutionary symbol of the masses in their fight against foreign invaders.

In 1920, the name of Kaveh was written in the canton of the flag of the Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan).[8]

Jashn-e mehregan is the celebration for the Fereydun's victory over Zahhāk; it is also the time when autumn rains begin to fall.

The dynasty Karen-Pahlav (also known as the House of Karen) claimed to be Kaveh's descendants.


  1. ^ E. W. West (30 June 2004). Sad Dar. Kessinger Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4191-4578-0. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Muḥammad ibn Khāvandshāh Mīr Khvānd (1832). History of the early kings of Persia: from Kaiomars, the first of the Peshdadian dynasty, to the conquest of Iran by Alexander the Great. Oriental Translation Fund of Gt. Brit. & Ireland. p. 130. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  3. ^ Sir John Malcolm (1829). The History of Persia: From the Most Early Period to the Present Time. Murray. p. 13. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  4. ^ "Kaveh the Blacksmith, Persian Hero". Iran Daily. March 15, 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 
  5. ^ Cyril Glassé; Huston Smith (1 February 2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Rowman Altamira. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-7591-0190-6. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Afshin Marashi (1 March 2008). Nationalizing Iran: Culture, Power, and the State, 1870-1940. University of Washington Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-295-98820-7. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  7. ^ Firoozeh Kashani-Sabet (2000). Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804-1946. I.B.Tauris. p. 148. ISBN 978-1-85043-270-8. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  8. ^ "Persia (Iran): Short-lived states". Flags Of The World. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 

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