Kaveri

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For other uses, see Kaveri (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 11°21′40″N 79°49′46″E / 11.36111°N 79.82944°E / 11.36111; 79.82944
Kaveri
River
Kallanai.jpg
The Kaveri river and the ancient Kallanai Dam seen near Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu
Country India
States Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Tributaries
 - left Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavathy
 - right Kabini, Bhavani, Noyyal, Amaravati
Cities Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Kushalnagar, Srirangapatna, Shivanasamudra, Muthathi, Mekedatu, Hogenakkal, Mettur, Bhavani, Erode, Karur, Namakkal, Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Kumbakonam
Source Talakaveri, Kodagu, Western Ghats
 - location Karnataka, India
 - elevation 1,276 m (4,186 ft)
 - coordinates 12°38′N 75°52′E / 12.633°N 75.867°E / 12.633; 75.867
Mouth Kaveri Delta
 - location Bay of Bengal, India & India
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 11°21′40″N 79°49′46″E / 11.36111°N 79.82944°E / 11.36111; 79.82944
Length 765 km (475 mi)
Basin 81,155 km2 (31,334 sq mi)
Discharge
 - average 677 m3/s (23,908 cu ft/s) [1]
Discharge elsewhere (average)
 - Grand Anicut (South) 235.7 m3/s (8,324 cu ft/s) [2]
Map of the Kaveri river flowing through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

The Kaveri, also written Cauvery in English, is a large Indian river. The origin of the river is traditionally placed at Talakaveri, Kodagu in the Western Ghats in Karnataka, flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths.

The Kaveri basin is estimated to be 81,155 km2 with many tributaries including the Shimsha, the Hemavati, the Arkavati, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Bhavani River, the Lokapavani, the Noyyal and the Amaravati River. The river's basin covers 4 states and Union Territories - Tamil Nadu (43,856 km2), Karnataka (34,273 km2), Kerala (2,866 km2) and Puducherry (160 km2).[3] Rising in southwestern Karnataka, it flows southeast some 800 km to enter the Bay of Bengal. East of Mysore it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 320 ft (100 m).[4] The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power.[5] The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India.

Etymology[edit]

According to legend a girl called Vishnumaya or Lopamudra, the daughter of Brahma was born, but her divine father allowed her to be considered the foster daughter of sage Kavera-muni . In order to obtain the beatitude for her adoptive father, she resolved to become a river whose waters would have to purify all the sins. This river came to be known as "Kaveri", the daughter of Kavera.

River course[edit]

After the river leaves the Kodagu hills and flows onto the Deccan plateau, it forms two islands, Srirangapatna and Shivanasamudra. First comes the Srirangapatna which forms the sangam and then comes Shivanasamudra.At Shivanasamudra the river drops 320 ft (98 m), forming the famous Shivanasamudra Falls known separately as Gagana Chukki and Bhara Chukki.[6] Asia's first hydroelectric plant (built in 1902) was on the left falls and supplied power to the city of Bangalore.

In its course through Karnataka, the channel is interrupted by twelve "anekattu" (dams) for the purpose of irrigation. From the Anekattu at Madadkatte, an artificial channel is diverted at a distance of 72 miles (116 km), irrigating an area of 10,000 acres (4,000 ha), and ultimately bringing its water supply to the town of Mandya.

Three kilometers away from Srirangapatna, the Kaveri is the basis for the Ranganthittu Bird Sanctuary. Near Srirangapatna is also an aqueduct, the Bangara Doddi Nala, which was constructed in the 17th century by the Wodeyar maharaja of Mysore, Ranadhira Kantirava, in memory of his favorite consort. It is said to be the only aqueduct where the water from a river, dammed upstream, is carried by the aqueduct over the very same river few miles downstream[citation needed]. This aqueduct also served as a motorable bridge until 1964.

In addition to providing many ancient and modern canals with water from the river for irrigation purposes, the Kaveri also serves as the main drinking water source for many towns and villages. The cities of Bangalore,[7] Mandya and Mysore depend almost entirely on the Kaveri for their drinking water supply. In fact, the river is called Jeevanadhi which, in Kannada, means a river supporting life.

The river enters Tamil Nadu through Dharmapuri district leading to the flat plains where it meanders. It drops into the Hogenakkal Falls just before it arrives in the town of Hogenakkal in Tamil Nadu. The three minor tributaries, Palar, Chennar and Thoppar enter into the Kaveri on her course, above Stanley Reservoir in Mettur, where the dam has been constructed. The Mettur Dam joins the Sita and Pala mountains beyond that valley through which the Kaveri flows, up to the Grand Anicut. The dam in Mettur impounds water not only for the improvement of irrigation but also to ensure the regular and sufficient supply of water to the important Hydro-Electric generating station at Mettur,Salem .It then flows through the western parts & cities of Salem Disrict.It then flows further through the length Erode district where river Bhavani, which running through the breadth of the district, merges with it. The confluence of the rivers Kaveri, Bhavani and Akash Ganga (imaginary) is at the exact place of Bhavani, Tamil Nadu Kooduthurai or Tiriveni Sangamam, Northern part of Erode City.

While passing through Erode, two more tributaries merge. Thirumani Mutharu join it in a village called Kududurai in Namakkal District. Noyyal and Amaravathi join it in Karur district before it reaches Tiruchirapalli district. Here the river becomes wide, with a sandy bed, and flows in an eastern direction until it splits into two at upper Anicut about 14 kilometre west of Tiruchirappalli. The northern branch of the river is called the Kollidam while the southern branch retains the name Kaveri and then goes directly eastwards into Thanjavur District. These two rivers join again and form the Srirangam island which is a part of city of Tiruchirapalli. From Tanjavore the river will split and goes to few place, that place is known as Delta kauveri.

Doddabetta (2,637m) is the highest point of the Kaveri basin.

Tributaries[edit]

History[edit]

The Chola king Karikalan has been immortalised as he constructed the bank for the Kaveri all the way from Puhar (Kaveripoompattinam) to Srirangam. It was built as far back as 1,600 years ago or even more. On both sides of the river are found walls spreading to a distance of 1,080 feet (330 m). The Kallanai dam constructed by him on the border between Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur is a superb work of engineering, which was made with earth and stone and has stood the vagaries of nature for hundreds of years.

In the 19th century, it was renovated on a bigger scale. The name of the historical dam has since been changed to “Grand Anicut” and stands as the head of a great irrigation system in the Thanjavur district. From this point, the Kollidam River runs north-east and discharges into the sea at Devakottai, a little south of Parangipettai. From river Kollidam, Manniar and Uppanai branch off at lower Anicut and irrigates a portion of Mayiladuthurai taluk and Sirkazhi taluk in Nagapatnam District. After Grand Anicut, the Kaveri divides into numerous branches and covers the whole of the delta with a vast network of irrigation channels in Nagapatnam and Tiruvarur districts and gets lost in the wide expanse of paddy fields. The Kaveri here is reduced to an insignificant channel and enters the Bay of Bengal at the historical place of Poompuhar about 13 km (8.1 mi) north of Tharangampadi.

Usage[edit]

Stanley Reservoir formed by Mettur Dam, the largest dam in Tamil Nadu

The primary uses of Kaveri are providing water for irrigation, water for household consumption and the generation of electricity.

An estimate at the time of the first Five Year Plan puts the total flow of the Kaveri at 12,000,000 acre feet (15 km3), of which 60% was used for irrigation. [8]

The Torekadanahalli pumpstation sends 540 Mld (million liters per day) of water from Kaveri 100 km to Bangalore.[9][10]

The water for the Kaveri is primarily supplied by monsoon rains. Dams, such as the Krishna Raja Sagara Dam and Mettur Dam, and those on its tributaries such as Banasura Sagar Dam project on a Kabini tributary, store water from monsoon periods and release the water during the dry months. Even so, during the months of February–May, water levels are often quite low, and some channels and distributaries riverbeds may become dry.[citation needed] Flow generally begins to increase in June or July[citation needed]. However, in some years when rains are light, the low river level can lead to agricultural distress in areas dependent upon the Kaveri for irrigation.[citation needed]

The hydroelectric plant built on the left of Sivanasamudra Falls on the Kaveri in 1902 was the first hydroelectric plant in Asia.[4]

The Krishna Raja Sagara Dam has a capacity of 49 tmc ft.[11] and the Mettur Dam which creates Stanley Reservoir has a capacity of 93.4 tmc ft. (thousand million cubic ft)

In August 2003, inflow into reservoirs in Karnataka was at a 29-year low, with a 58% shortfall.[12] Water stored in Krishna Raja Sagara amounted to only 4.6 tmc ft.[12]

Water sharing[edit]

Further information: See Kaveri River Water Dispute

Significance in Hinduism[edit]

Kaveri flows near Nimishamba temple, Srirangapattana, Karnataka
A temple and an effigy of Aiyanar, by the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu

Talakaveri is a pilgrimage site set amidst Bramahagiri Hills in Kodagu. Thousands of pilgrims flock to the three temples at the source of the river, especially on the specified day known as Tula sankramana when the river water has been said to gush out like a fountain at a predetermined time.

There are several legends about how the river Kaveri came into being. Chapters 11–14 of the Skanda purana (also known as the Kaveri purana) relate many of them. According to the most well known version, when the great ocean was churned by the devas and the asuras in order to obtain amrita, the elixir of life, Lord Vishnu turned into Mohini, a non-pareil of infinite charm and appeal, to distract the asuras and restore the elixir to the devas. Goddess lakshmi also sent along Lopamudre, an apsara to assist Mohini. After the elixir was successfully restored to the devas Lopamudre was brought up by Brahma as his daughter.

After some time Kavera, a sage of renown, came to the Brahmagiri to meditate. Kavera was lonely and prayed to Lord Brahma that he might bless him with a child. Brahma was pleased by his devotion and gave him Lopamudre for a daughter. Lopamudre was renamed Kaveri after the sage.

Kaveri was very keen that her father should have every happiness and prosperity in life and a blessed land full of good and happy people. So she went to the Brahmagiri too and prayed to Lord Brahma that she might turn into a river and flow through the country, pouring her blessings on the people and turning the land green and fertile. She also prayed that her waters might be so holy that all those who took a dip in it might be absolved of all their sins. Brahma granted her both the boons readily and Kaveri was really happy.

But something else was to happen to her first. Sage Agastya happened to see Kaveri when she was deep in meditation on the Brahmagiri. He fell in love with her and asked her to marry him. Although her heart was set on turning into a river of blessings, Kaveri could not refuse Agastya. But she made him promise that if ever he left her alone too long, she would have the right to forsake him and go her way. Agastya promised and kept his word faithfully for some time. But one day he got busy in a theological discussion with his disciples and lost track of time. Kaveri waited patiently for a while but after some hours had passed she jumped into agastya’s special holy tank and flowed from it like a river. As soon as the disciples of agastya saw what had happened they tried to stop her from flowing away. But Kaveri promptly went underground and appeared again at Bhaganda Kshetra and flowed on toward Valambari and finally into the Bay of Bengal. And it has been worshipped as a sacred river – throughout its course – ever since.

There is yet another interesting belief according to which the river Ganges also joins Kaveri underground once a year, during the Tulamasa, in order to wash herself free of the pollution caused by the crowds of sinners who bathe in her waters all the year round. Kaveri is considered to be as sacred as the Ganges throughout its course, with the same power to wash off all one’s sins. But Bhagamandala, where the three rivers meet, is considered to be the most sacred spot of all. There are temples all along its banks visited by thousands of pilgrims. Kaveri is joined by several rivers, the most important ones being Kummahole, Hemavathi, Lakshmanatirtha, Shimsha etc., it flows into the Bay of Bengal in Thanjavur district in Tamil Nadu.

During the month of Tula, devotees take holy dip (tula snanam) in the Kavery in the pilgrim centers in its banks across the two states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, most prominent of them being Bhagamandala in Karnataka and Mayavaram in Tamil Nadu. The cult of the river Goddess began in Kodagu and was centered in Bhaganda Kshetra (Bhagamandala).

The three major river islands at Kaveri have a strong Vaishnava heritage, with sculptures of Lord Vishnu in a reclining posture on the legendary seven-headed serpent (Sesha) as his celestial bed (Sheshashayana). These three temples are known as Adi Ranga, Madhya Ranga, and Antya Ranga.

On the banks of the Kaveri is the ancient temple town of Talakad where the holy festival Panchalinga Darshana is held every 12 years and devotees bathe in the Kaveri River.[13]

Prominent towns / religious sites in the Kaveri banks[edit]

Veneration as a goddess[edit]

Goddess Kaveri, Statue at Kallanai Dam

The legend of Kaveri has its origins in Puranas. Kaveri is directly linked with three puranic icons[14] i.e. Agasthya, King Kavera and Lopamudra, the earthly, feminine manifestation of Kaveri herself. It is held that Lopamudra was granted the form of a river, by Brahma, in answer to tapas performed by all the three, including herself.

Both saint Agasthya and king Kavera were independently performing tapas with salvation (Moksha) as the goal. Pleased by their tapas, Brahma appears before them only to deny both immediate Moksha. Instead, Brahma rules to Kavera that he shall beget a daughter who will lead him to Moksha; to Agasthya, Brahma says, he shall give him a divine wife; Agasthya is to live with her and enrich the world before eventually attaining Moksha. In the meantime it was said that Vishnumaya, the divine daughter of Brahma—the impeccable feminine creation of the creator, expressing to Brahma her wish to serve the world. Being pleased, Brahma ordain her to be, in due time, Lopamudra, the daughter of Kavera, then the wife of Agasthya, and eventually the sacred of the sacred, the river Kaveri.

In a slightly different version, Kaveri is regarded as the outpour of sage Agasthya's Kamandala; it is said the Lord Ganesha, assuming the form of a crow, upset Agasthya's Kamandala to release the Kaveri.

After assuming the form river, Kaveri performed another tapas to become the sacred of rivers, more sacred than even the Ganges. Her tapas was answered and Lord Vishnu appears before her. On hearing her wish, Lord Vishnu says "Ganges is sacred because she originates from my feet; but you are infinitely more sacred to her as I adorn you as my garland". Upon this blessing, it is said that even the Ganges is said to come underground, once a year, to Kaveri to cleanse herself. To this day, Vaishnavites regard Kaveri, the river that holds Srirangam in her bosom, as the most sacred of rivers. Vaishnavaites lovingly regard Kaveri as the mother of Ranganayaki, the divine consort of Lord Ranganatha of Srirangam in Tiruchirappalli.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, R.D.; Sharma, K.D. (2005-09-10). "Water Resources of India". Current Science (Bangalore: Current Science Association) 89 (5): 794–811. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  2. ^ "Gauging Station - Data Summary". RivDis. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  3. ^ "INTEGRATED HYDROLOGICAL DATA BOOK". Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  4. ^ a b "World Waterfall Database". Retrieved 9 November 2006. 
  5. ^ "Shivasamudram Falls". cauvery.com. Retrieved 11 November 2006. 
  6. ^ The Cauvery Trail : Kaveri has many religious and tourism spots between KRS and Mettur
  7. ^ BWSSB
  8. ^ http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/1st/1planch26.html
  9. ^ Bangaloreit.com
  10. ^ http://www.tce.co.in/infra/watersupply/bangalore.pdf#search=%22halli%20pipeline%20Bangalore%22
  11. ^ "Corporation urged to chalk out water policy for Mysore city". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 26 March 2006. 
  12. ^ a b "Cauvery reservoirs’ inflow hits record low". Deccan Herald (Bangalore). 2 August 2003. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 
  13. ^ "Talakkad – Panchalinga Temples". TempleNet. Retrieved 31 January 2007. 
  14. ^ : sag http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/bhakti/archives/oct2002/0184.html

External links[edit]

  • Cauvery Presentation on the Cavery River
  • The Cauvery Trail Schematic map of Kaveri with important sites (KRS to Mettur)