Kawaii

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For the Hawaiian island, see Kauai.
For other uses, see Kawai (disambiguation).
Silver roadside fence with clean, well-maintained pink bunny-shaped posts for support.
An example in construction work: a temporary guard rail in Narita, Chiba
An E3 Series Shinkansen train with Pokémon decorations

Kawaii (かわいい?, [kaw͍aiꜜi], "lovable", "cute", or "adorable"[1]) is the quality of cuteness in the context of Japanese culture.[2][3][4] It has become a prominent aspect of Japanese popular culture, entertainment, clothing, food, toys, personal appearance, behavior, and mannerisms.[5] The noun is kawaisa (可愛?, "lovability", "cuteness" or "adorableness").

The root word is "kawai", formed from the kanji "ka" (), meaning "acceptable", and "ai" (), meaning "love". The kanji spelling is ateji,[6] that is, a phonetic representation not related to the origin or meaning of the word. For that reason, it is often spelled in hiragana. The term kawaii has taken on the secondary meanings of "cool",[7] "groovy",[7] "acceptable",[8] "desirable",[8] "charming"[9] "non-threatening",[9] and "innocent".[10]

Aesthetics[edit]

Soichi Masubuchi (増淵宗一 Masubuchi Sōichi?), in his work Kawaii Syndrome, claims "cute" and "neat" have taken precedence over the former Japanese aesthetics of "beautiful" and "refined".[9] As a cultural phenomenon, cuteness is increasingly accepted in Japan as a part of Japanese culture and national identity. Tomoyuki Sugiyama (杉山奉文 Sugiyama Tomoyuki?), author of Cool Japan, believes that "cuteness" is rooted in Japan's harmony-loving culture, and Nobuyoshi Kurita (栗田経惟 Kurita Nobuyoshi?), a sociology professor at Musashi University in Tokyo, has stated that "cute" is a "magic term" that encompasses everything that is acceptable and desirable in Japan.[11]

Gender performance[edit]

Japanese women who feign kawaii behaviors (e.g., high-pitched voice, squealing giggles[12]) that could be viewed as forced or inauthentic are called burikko and this is considered[by whom?] a gender performance.[13] The term burikko (鰤子?) is formed with buri (, literally 'amberjack' a fish), a pun on furi (, 'to pretend or pose'),[14] and ko (, 'child').[13] It was a neologism developed in the 1980s by comedienne Kuniko Yamada (山田邦子 Yamada Kuniko?).[13]

Physical attractiveness[edit]

In Japan, cuteness is expected of men and women.[15] There is a trend of men shaving their legs to mimic the neotenic look.[15] Japanese women often try to act cute to attract men.[15] A study by Kanebo, a cosmetic company, found that Japanese women in their 20s and 30s favored the "cute look" with a "childish round face".[8] Women also employ a look of innocence in order to further play out this idea of cuteness. Having large eyes is one aspect that exemplifies innocence; therefore many Japanese women attempt to alter the size of their eyes. To create this illusion, women may wear large contacts, false eyelashes, drastic eye makeup, and even have an East Asian blepharoplasty, commonly known as double eyelid surgery.[16]

Idols[edit]

Momoiro Clover Z performing at Japan Expo convention on Japanese popular culture

Idols (アイドル aidoru?) are media personalities in their teens and twenties who are considered particularly attractive or cute and who will, for a period ranging from several months to a few years, regularly appear in the mass media, e.g. as singers for pop groups, bit-part actors, TV personalities (tarento), models in photo spreads published in magazines, advertisements, etc. (But not every young celebrity is considered an idol. Young celebrities who wish to cultivate a rebellious image, such as many rock musicians, reject the "idol" label.) Speed, Morning Musume, AKB48, Momoiro Clover Z are examples of popular idol groups in Japan during the 2000s & 2010s.[17]

Cute fashion[edit]

Lolita[edit]

Lolita fashion is a very well-known and recognizable style in Japan. Based on Victorian fashion and the Rococo period, girls mix in their own elements along with gothic style to achieve the porcelain-doll look.[18] The girls who dress in Lolita fashion are not going for the "sexy" look, but instead try to look cute, innocent, and beautiful.[18] This look is achieved with lace, ribbons, bows, ruffles, bloomers, aprons, and ruffled petticoats. Parasols, chunky Mary Jane heels, and Bo Peep collars are also very popular.[19]

Sweet Lolita[edit]

An example of Sweet Lolita fashion in Japan

Sweet Lolita is a subset of Lolita fashion that includes even more ribbons, bows, and lace, and is often fabricated out of pastels and other light colors. Another subset of Lolita fashion related to "sweet Lolita" is Fairy Kei. Head-dresses such as giant bows or bonnets are also very common, while lighter make-up is also used to achieve a more natural look. Curled hair extensions, sometimes accompanied by eyelash extensions, are also popular in helping with the baby doll look. Themes such as fruits and sweets are often used as patterns on the fabrics used for dresses. Purses often go with the themes and are shaped as hearts, strawberries, or stuffed animals. Baby, the Stars Shine Bright is one of the more popular clothing stores for this style and often carries themes. Mannerisms are also important to many Sweet Lolitas. Sweet Lolita is not only a fashion, but also a lifestyle.[20] This is evident in the movie Kamikaze Girls (2004) where the main Lolita character, Momoko, only drinks tea and eats sweets.[21]

Kawaii men[edit]

Although kawaii is typically a female-dominated fashion, there are men who decide to partake in this trend. Some men decide to transform themselves into women, more specifically kawaii women. They are able to transform themselves by wearing wigs, false eyelashes, applying makeup, and wearing kawaii female clothing.[22] This is seen predominately in male entertainers, such as Torideta-san, a DJ who transforms himself into a kawaii woman when working at his nightclub.[22]"Japanese pop stars and actors often have longer hair, such as Takuya Kimura of SMAP. Men are also noted as often aspiring to a neotenic look. While it doesn't quite fit the exact specifications of what cuteness means for females, men are certainly influenced by the same societal mores - to be attractive in a specific sort of way that the society finds acceptable."[23] In this way both Japanese men and women conform to the expectations of Kawaii in some way or another.

Products[edit]

Kawaii pornographic DVD section, Japan

This concept of "kawaii" has had an influence on a variety of products, including candy, such as Hi-Chew, Koala's March and Hello Panda. Cuteness can be added to products by adding cute features, such as hearts, flowers, stars and rainbows.

Cute characters[edit]

Cute elements can be found almost everywhere in Japan, from big business to corner markets and national government, ward, and town offices.[15][24] Many companies, large and small, use cute mascots to present their wares and services to the public. For example:

  • Pikachu, a character from Pokémon, adorns the side of ten ANA passenger jets, the Pokémon Jets.
  • Asahi Bank used Miffy (Nijntje), a character from a Dutch series of children's picture books, on some of its ATM and credit cards.
  • The Prefectures of Japan as well as many cities and cultural institutions, have cute mascot characters to promote tourism. Kumamon, the Kumamoto Prefecture mascot, and Hikonyan, the city of Hikone mascot, are among the most popular.[25]
  • The Japan Post "Yū-Pack" mascot is a stylized mailbox;[26] they also use other cute mascot characters to promote their various services (among them the Postal Savings Bank) and have used many such on postage stamps.
  • Some police forces in Japan have their own moe mascots, which sometimes adorn the front of kōban (police boxes).
  • NHK, the public broadcaster, has its own cute mascots. Domokun, the unique-looking and widely recognized NHK mascot, was introduced in 1998 and quickly took on a life of its own, appearing in Internet memes and fan art around the world.
  • Sanrio, the company behind Hello Kitty and other similarly cute characters, runs the Sanrio Puroland theme park in Tokyo, and painted on some EVA Air Airbus A330 jets as well. Sanrio’s line of more than 50 characters takes in more than $1 billion a year and it remains the most successful company to capitalize on the cute trend.[24]

Cute can be also used to describe a specific fashion sense[7][27] of an individual, and generally includes clothing that appears to be made for young children, apart from the size, or clothing that accentuates the cuteness of the individual wearing the clothing. Ruffles and pastel colors are commonly (but not always) featured, and accessories often include toys or bags featuring anime characters.[24]

An EVA Air Airbus A330 with a Hello Kitty livery

These cute cartoon characters are popular in Japan:

Non-kawaii imports[edit]

There have been occasions in which popular Western products failed to meet the expectations of kawaii, and thus did not do well in the Japanese market.[citation needed] Cabbage Patch Kids dolls did not sell well in Japan, because the Japanese considered their facial features to be "ugly" and "grotesque" compared to the flatter and almost featureless face of Hello Kitty.[9] Also, the doll Barbie, portraying an adult woman, did not become successful in Japan compared to the Lika-chan, a doll who was modeled after an 11-year-old girl.[9]

Kawaii industry[edit]

Kawaii goods outlet in 100 yen shop

Kawaii has gradually gone from a small subculture in Japan to an important part of Japanese modern culture as a whole. There is an overwhelming amount of modern items featuring kawaii themes, not only in Japan, but worldwide.[30] And characters associated with kawaii have an astounding popularity these days. We can see the "global cute" by the billion-dollar sellers like Pokémon and Hello Kitty.[31] "Fueled by Internet subcultures, Hello Kitty alone has hundreds of entries on eBay, and is selling in more than 30 countries, including Argentina, Bahrain, and Taiwan."[31]

Japan has become a powerhouse in the kawaii industry and images of Doraemon, Hello Kitty, Pikachu, and Sailor Moon are popular in mobile phone accessories. However, Professor Tian Shenliang says that Japan's future is dependent on how much of an impact kawaii brings to humanity.[32]

The Japanese Foreign Ministry has also recognized the power of cute merchandise and have sent three 18-year-old girls overseas in the hopes of spreading Japanese culture around the world. The girls are dressed in uniforms and maid costumes that are commonplace in Japan.[33]

Kawaii manga and magazines have brought tremendous profit to Japanese press industry.[34] Moreover, the worldwide revenue from the computer game and its merchandising peripherals are closing in on $5 billion, according to a Nintendo press release titled "It's a Pokémon Planet".[31]

History[edit]

Original definition[edit]

The original definition of kawaii came from Lady Murasaki's The Tale of Genji where it referred to pitiable qualities.[9] During the Shogunate period under the ideology of neo-Confucianism, women came to be included under the term kawaii as the perception of women being animalistic was replaced with the conception of women as docile.[9]

Cute handwriting[edit]

The rise of cuteness in Japanese culture emerged in the 1970s as part of a new style of writing.[35] Many teenage girls began to write laterally using mechanical pencils.[35] These pencils produced very fine lines, as opposed to traditional Japanese writing that varied in thickness and was vertical.[35] Also, the girls would write in big, round characters and they added little pictures to their writing, such as hearts, stars, smiley faces, and letters of the Latin alphabet.[35]

These pictures would be inserted randomly and made the writing very hard to read.[35] As a result, this writing style caused a lot of controversy and was banned in many schools.[35] During the 1980s, however, this new "cute" writing was adopted by magazines and comics and was put onto packaging and advertising.[35]

From 1984 to 1986, Kazuma Yamane (山根一眞 Yamane Kazuma?) studied the development of cute handwriting, which he called Anomalous Female Teenage Handwriting, in depth.[35] This type of cute Japanese handwriting has also been called: marui ji (丸い?), meaning "round writing", koneko ji (小猫?), meaning "kitten writing", manga ji (漫画?), meaning "comic writing", and burikko ji (?), meaning "fake-child writing".[36] Although it was commonly thought that the writing style was something that teenagers had picked up from comics, he found that teenagers had come up with the style themselves, as part of an underground movement.[35]

Cute merchandise[edit]

Tomoyuki Sugiyama (杉山奉文 Sugiyama Tomoyuki?), author of Cool Japan, claims cute fashion in Japan can be traced back to the Edo Period with the popularity of netsuke.[8]

Because of this growing trend, companies such as Sanrio came out with merchandise like Hello Kitty. Hello Kitty was an immediate success and the obsession with cute continued to progress in other areas as well. The 1980s also saw the rise of cute idols, such as Seiko Matsuda, who is largely credited with popularizing the trend. Women began to emulate Seiko Matsuda and her cute fashion style and mannerisms, which emphasized the helplessness and innocence of young girls.[37] The market for cute merchandise in Japan used to be driven by Japanese girls between 15 and 18 years old.[38]

No longer limited to teenagers, however, the spread of making things as cute as possible, even common household items, is currently embraced by people of all ages.

Influence on other cultures[edit]

Kawaii products are seemingly gaining more popularity beyond the borders of Japan into other Asian markets and it's seemingly becoming more popular in the US especially among the young anime and manga fans as well as among those who are influenced by the Japanese culture. Cute merchandise and products are especially popular in some other parts of East Asia, such as China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries like Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand and Singapore.[24][39]

Sebastian Masuda, owner of 6%DOKIDOKI and a global advocate for kawaii influence, takes the quality from Harajuku to the western markets in his stores and artwork. The underlying belief of this Japanese designer is that "kawaii" actually saves the world.[40] The infusion of kawaii into other world markets and cultures is achieved by introducing kawaii via modern art, audio visual and written media and the fashion trends of Japanese youth, especially in high-school girls.[41]

Japanese kawaii seemingly operates as a center of global popularity due to its association with making cultural productions and consumer products "cute". This mindset pursues a global market[42] giving rise to numerous applications and interpretations in other cultures.

The dissemination of Japanese youth fashion and "kawaii culture" is usually associated with the western society and trends set by western designers borrowed or taken from Japan[41] With the emergence of China, South Korea, and even Singapore as economic centers in Asia, the Kawaii merchandise and product popularity has shifted back to the east. In these Asian markets, the kawaii concept takes on various forms and different types of presentation depending on the target audience.

Taiwan culture, in particular government, has embraced and elevated kawaii to a new level of social consciousness. The introduction of the A-Bian doll was seen as the development of a symbol to advance democracy and assist in constructing a collective imagination and national identity for Taiwanese. The A-Bian dolls are kawaii likeness of sports figure, famous individuals, and now political figures that use kawaii images as a means of self-promotion and potential votes.[43] The creation of the A-Bian doll has allowed Taiwanese President Chen staffers to create a new culture where the "kawaii" image of a politician can be used to mobilize supports, and gain election votes.[44]

Japanese popular "kawaii culture" has had an effect on Singaporean youth. The emergence of Japanese culture can be traced back to the mid-1980s when Japan became one of the economic powers in the world. Kawaii has developed from a few kid television shows to an internet sensation.[45] Japanese media is used so abundantly in Singapore that youths are more likely to imitate the fashion of their Japanese idols, learn the Japanese language, and continue purchasing Japanese oriented merchandise.[46]

In American cultures the symbol of kawaii is shown by placing the "peace" hand sign over the face in social environments and pictures. Most of the time accompanied with the hashtag "kawaii" on social sites such as Facebook and Instagram.

The Asian countries of China, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Thailand either produce kawaii items for international consumption or have websites that cater for kawaii as part of the youth culture in their country. Kawaii has taken on a life of its own, spawning the formation of kawaii websites, kawaii home pages and finally kawaii social networking pages.[47] While Japan is the origin and Mecca of all things being kawaii, artists and businesses around the world are imitating the kawaii theme.[48] Kawaii has truly become "greater" than itself. The interconnectedness of today's world via the internet has taken kawaii to new heights of exposure and acceptance, producing a kawaii "movement".[48] The popularity of kawaii and kawaii products have become a part of the "world's culture".

The Kawaii concept has become something of a global phenomenon. The aesthetic cuteness of Japan is very appealing to people globally. The wide popularity of Japanese kawaii is often credited with it being "culturally odorless." The elimination of exoticism and national branding has helped kawaii to reach numerous target audiences and to span every culture, class, and gender group.[49] The palatable characteristics of kawaii have made it a global hit, resulting in Japan's global image shifting from being known for austere rock gardens to being known for "cute-worship".[8]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] _The Japanese Self in Cultural Logic_ by Takei Sugiyama Libre, c. 2004 University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-2840-2, p. 86.
  2. ^ "kawaii", Oxford Dictionaries Online.
  3. ^ かわいい - kawaii - 可愛い - cute Japanesefile. Accessed May 7, 2011 from http://japanesefile.com/Adjectives/kawaii_3.html
  4. ^ Kim, T. Beautiful is an Adjective. Accessed May 7, 2011, from http://www.guidetojapanese.org/adjectives.html
  5. ^ Diana Lee, "Inside Look at Japanese Cute Culture" (September 1, 2005).
  6. ^ "かわいい ". 語源由来辞典 (Dictionary of Etymology) (in Japanese). Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c Time Asia: "Arts: Kwest For Kawaii". Retrieved on 2006-04-19 from http://www.time.com/time/asia/arts/magazine/0,9754,131022,00.html.
  8. ^ a b c d e TheAge.Com: "Japan smitten by love of cute" http://www.theage.com.au/news/people/cool-or-infantile/2006/06/18/1150569208424.html
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Shiokawa. "Cute But Deadly: Women and Violence in Japanese Comics". Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad and Sexy. Ed. John A. Lent. Bowling Green, Kentucky: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1999. 93–125. ISBN 0-87972-779-9.
  10. ^ Lee, Diana. "Maid Cafés - The Expanding Industry in Japan". UniOrb. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Quotes and paraphrases from: Yuri Kageyama (June 14, 2006). "Cuteness a hot-selling commodity in Japan". Associated Press. 
  12. ^ Merry White (29 September 1994). The material child: coming of age in Japan and America. University of California Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-520-08940-2. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c "You are doing burikko!: Censoring/scrutinizing artificers of cute femininity in Japanese," Laura Miller in Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People, edited by Janet Shibamoto Smith and Shigeko Okamoto, Oxford University Press, 2004. In Japanese.
  14. ^ Mitsubishi Shōji Kabushiki Kaisha (25 April 1988). Tatemae and honne: distinguishing between good form and real intention in Japanese business culture. Free Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-02-921591-3. "A similar word in vogue today is burikko, which is a contraction of "a girl (ko) who puts on (furi = buri) a cute pose."" 
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  17. ^ "Momoiro Clover Z dazzles audiences with shiny messages of hope". The Asahi Shimbun. 2012-08-29. 
  18. ^ a b Fort, Emeline (2010). A Guide to Japanese Street Fashion. 6 Degrees. 
  19. ^ Holson, Laura (13 March 2005). "Gothic Lolitas: Demure vs. Dominatrix". New York Times. 
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  23. ^ Bennette, Colette. "It's all Kawaii: Cuteness in Japanese Culture". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Cute Inc.". WIRED. December 1999. 
  25. ^ a b c "Top Ten Japanese Character Mascots". Finding Fukuoka. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  26. ^ Japan Post site showing mailbox mascot. URL accessed April 19, 2006.
  27. ^ The New Yorker "FACT: SHOPPING REBELLION: What the kids want". Retrieved on 2006-04-19 from http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?020318fa_FACT.
  28. ^ "Russia's Cheburashka Character Gets Japanese TV Anime". Anime News Network. September 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  29. ^ Jerry. 2005. Oswald Mania in Japan. Cartoon brew. http://www.cartoonbrew.com/old-brew/oswald-mania-in-japan.html
  30. ^ (Research Paper) Kawaii: Culture of Cuteness
  31. ^ a b c Roach, Mary. "Cute Inc." Wired Dec. 1999. 01 May 2005 http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/7.12/cute_pr.html
  32. ^ 卡哇伊熱潮 扭轉日本文化
  33. ^ 日本的“卡哇伊文化”_中国台湾网
  34. ^ “萌文化”在日本大行其道_旅游_环球网
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kinsella, Sharon. 1995. "Cuties in Japan" [2] accessed August 1, 2009.
  36. ^ Skov, L.(1995). Women, media, and consumption in Japan. Hawai'i Press, USA.
  37. ^ See [3] URL accessed February 11, 2009.
  38. ^ Time Asia: Young Japan: She's a material girl http://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1999/990503/style1.html
  39. ^ Cute Power! Asia Is In Love With Japan's Pop Culture. From Pokemon To Puffy, Japanese Stuff Is Oh, So 'Q!' Stock Up On Those Hello Kitty Dumplings.
  40. ^ (Kataoka, 2010)
  41. ^ a b Tadao, T. (n.d). "Dissemination of Japanese Young Fashion and Culture to the World-Enjoyable Japanese Cute (Kawaii) Fashions Spreading to the World and its Meaning". Sen-I Gakkaishi, 66(7), pp. 223–226. Retrieved from: http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edswsc&AN=000281829800004&site=eds-live&scope=site
  42. ^ Brown, J. (2011). Re-framing "Kawaii": Interrogating Global Anxieties Surrounding the Aesthetic of 'Cute' in Japanese Art and Consumer Products. International Journal Of The Image, 1(2), 1. Retrieved from: http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eda&AN=66386444&site=eds-live&scope=site
  43. ^ [1]A-Bian Family. http://www.akibo.com.tw/home/gallery/mark/03.htm
  44. ^ Chuang, Y. C. (2011, September). "Kawaii in Taiwan politics". International Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies, 7(3). 1–16. Retrieved from here
  45. ^ [2]All things Kawaii. http://www.allthingskawaii.net/links/
  46. ^ Hao, X., Teh, L.L. (2004). "The impact of japanese popular culture on the Singaporean youth". Keio Communication Review, 24. 17–32. Retrieved from: http://www.mediacom.keio.ac.jp/publication/pdf2004/review26/3.pdf
  47. ^ [3]World of Kawaii. http://www.etsy.com/shop/worldofkawaii
  48. ^ a b Rutledge, B. (2010, October). I love kawaii. Ibuki Magazine. 1–2. Retrieved from: http://ibukimagazine.com/lifestyle-/other-trends/212-i-love-kawaii
  49. ^ Shearin, M. (2011, October). Triumph of kawaii. William & Mary ideation. Retrieved from: http://www.wm.edu/research/ideation/ideation-stories-for-borrowing/2011/triumph-of-kawaii5221.php