Kawasaki P-1

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P-1
JMSDF Kawasaki XP-1 Aoki.jpg
XP-1 at Atsugi in April 2011
Role Maritime patrol aircraft
Manufacturer Kawasaki
First flight 28 September 2007
Introduction 2013[1]
Status In service
Primary user Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Produced 13
Unit cost
US$200 million aprox (2014)

The Kawasaki P-1 (previously P-X, XP-1) is a Japanese maritime patrol aircraft in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force as a replacement for the P-3C Orion. The JMSDF took delivery of the first two operational P-1 aircraft on 26 March 2013.[1]

Development[edit]

With its P-3C aircraft having been in service for twenty years, the JMSDF began to look for a replacement maritime patrol aircraft. Lockheed and the United States had been working on the Lockheed P-7 to replace its own P-3s, but the program had been cancelled. Since other similar aircraft (such as the Nimrod) did not meet the JMSDF's requirements, they decided to develop their own aircraft.

The project was intended to share many design components with the Kawasaki C-2, another local design intended to replace the C-1 and C-130H cargo aircraft. However, due to the very different roles of the two aircraft, only minimal similarities have been achieved. The merit rather lies in the sharing of development resources, allowing a large reduction in development costs. Total development costs included C-X are 345 billion Yen ($3 billion) at 2007.[2]

Design[edit]

P-1 with its US equivalent, the Boeing P-8 Poseidon in 2014

Like the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, S-3 Viking and P-8 Poseidon, the P-1 is a jet-powered design. The XP-1 is powered by four IHI F7-10 turbofan engines mounted under the low-set wings.

The P-X and C-X designs were originally independent, but it was later decided to make certain components common to both designs.[3] Common components shared with the C-X are cockpit windows, outer wing, and horizontal stabilizer. Other internal shared parts include auxiliary power unit, cockpit panel, flight control system computer, anti collision light, and gear control unit. Development costs decreased by about 25 billion yen (US$218 million) due to shared components.[citation needed] Unit costs and operational costs are expected to be lower thanks to this initiative.

The P-1 will also have an artificial intelligence (AI) system to assist TACCO operation. Similar to the SH-60K, an advanced combat direction system able to show the TACCO operator the best flight course to attack a submarine will also be on board.[4]

Fly-by-light will be an important feature, decreasing electro-magnetic disturbances to the sensors compared to fly-by-wire. The P-1 will be the first production aircraft to be equipped with such a flight control system.

Sensors on the P-1, such as Toshiba HPS-106 active electronically scanned array 4 antennas with 360 degree coverage (AESA), magnetic anomaly detector (MAD), and Infrared/Light detection systems, will be used to detect submarines and small vessels.

The P-1 will have a bomb bay for anti-submarine weapons, as well as eight external pylons[5] to carry ASMs or bombs.[6]

Operational history[edit]

JMSDF P-1(5506) which takes off from Iwakuni Air Base 20140914.JPG

On 31 August 2007 the Ministry of Defense revealed that they will procure four production airframes. The request in the FY2008 budget is 67.9 billion yen, or about US$566 million. This will make the unit price for each aircraft at US$141.5 million.[7]

In 2013, the ministry will order two units for ¥44.5 billion. These P-1s will have increased detection/discrimination capability, flight performance, information processing capability, and strike capability as a successor to existing (P-3C) fixed-wing patrol aircraft.[8]

The XP-1's first flight took place at Gifu Air Base in Japan on 28 September 2007. The flight lasted about one hour, and ended successfully.[9] The P-X was redesignated XP-1 at this time.

As of March 2010, Kawasaki Heavy Industries has delivered four XP-1 maritime patrol test aircraft to Japan's Ministry of Defense.[10]

On 8 August 2011, the Japanese Ministry of Defense announced that two aircraft used for ground testing had developed tears in various parts of the craft, including the fuel tank and central part of the fuselage.[11] Repairs were planned to reinforce the affected areas.[11]

Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Force took delivery of its first two P-1s on 26 March 2013, ahead of a planned two years of test flights.[12] However, the planes were grounded on 14 May 2013, after one developed unstable combustion in some of its engines in flight.[13]

Specifications (XP-1)[edit]

Data from flightglobal.com[10][14]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
  • Bombs: 20,000+ lb (9,000+ kg)
  • Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
  • Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
  • Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new(G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges

Avionics

  • Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
  • Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
  • Anti-submarine systems:SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
  • Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

External links[edit]