|Role||Maritime patrol aircraft|
|First flight||28 September 2007|
|Primary user||Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force|
US$167 million 
The Kawasaki P-1 (previously P-X, XP-1) is a Japanese maritime patrol aircraft in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force as a replacement for the P-3C Orion. The JMSDF took delivery of the first two operational P-1 aircraft on 26 March 2013.
With its P-3C aircraft having been in service for twenty years, the JMSDF began to look for a replacement maritime patrol aircraft. Lockheed and the United States had been working on the Lockheed P-7 to replace its own P-3s, but the program had been cancelled. Since other similar aircraft (such as the Nimrod) did not meet the JMSDF's requirements, they decided to develop their own aircraft.
The project was intended to share many design components with the Kawasaki C-2, another local design intended to replace the C-1 and C-130H cargo aircraft. However, due to the very different roles of the two aircraft, only minimal similarities have been achieved. The merit rather lies in the sharing of development resources, allowing a large reduction in development costs. Total development costs included C-X are 345 billion Yen ($3 billion) at 2007.
The P-X and C-X designs were originally independent, but it was later decided to make some components common to both designs. Common components shared with the C-X include cockpit windows, outer wings, and horizontal stabilizer. Internal shared parts include the auxiliary power unit, cockpit panel, flight control system computer, anti-collision lights, and gear control unit. Development costs were reduced by about 25 billion yen (US$218 million) through shared components, and operation maintenance costs should also be reduced.
The P-1 has an artificial intelligence (AI) system to assist TACCO operation. Similar to the SH-60K, an advanced combat direction system directs the TACCO operator to the best flight course to attack a submarine.
Fly-by-light is an important feature, decreasing electro-magnetic disturbances to the sensors compared to fly-by-wire. The P-1 is the first production aircraft to be equipped with such a flight control system.
Sensors on the P-1, such as Toshiba HPS-106 active electronically scanned array using four antennas for 360 degree coverage (AESA), magnetic anomaly detector (MAD), and Infrared/Light detection systems, will be used to detect submarines and small vessels.
On 31 August 2007 the Ministry of Defense revealed that they will procure four production airframes. The request in the FY2008 budget is 67.9 billion yen, or about US$566 million. This will make the unit price for each aircraft at US$141.5 million.
In 2013, the ministry will order two units for ¥44.5 billion. These P-1s will have increased detection/discrimination capability, flight performance, information processing capability, and strike capability as a successor to existing (P-3C) fixed-wing patrol aircraft.
The XP-1's first flight took place at Gifu Air Base in Japan on 28 September 2007. The flight lasted about one hour, and ended successfully. The P-X was redesignated XP-1 at this time.
As of March 2010, Kawasaki Heavy Industries has delivered four XP-1 maritime patrol test aircraft to Japan's Ministry of Defense.
On 8 August 2011, the Japanese Ministry of Defense announced that two aircraft used for ground testing had developed tears in various parts of the craft, including the fuel tank and central part of the fuselage. Repairs were planned to reinforce the affected areas.
Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Force took delivery of its first two P-1s on 26 March 2013, ahead of a planned two years of test flights. However, the planes were grounded on 14 May 2013, after one developed unstable combustion in some of its engines in flight.
- Crew: Flight: 2 Mission: 11
- Length: 38.0 m (124 ft 8 in)
- Wingspan: 35.4 m (114 ft 8 in)
- Height: 12.1 m (39 ft 4 in)
- Max. takeoff weight: 79,700 kg (176,000 lb)
- Powerplant: 4 × IHI Corporation F7 turbofan, 13,500 lbs (60 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 996 km/h (538 knots, 619 mph)
- Cruise speed: 833 km/h (450 knots, 516 mph)
- Range: 8,000 km (4,320 nm, 4,970 mi)
- Service ceiling: 44,200 ft (13,520 m)
- Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
- Bombs: 20,000+ lb (9,000+ kg)
- Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
- Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
- Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new(G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges
- Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
- Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
- Anti-submarine systems:SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
- Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- BAE Systems Nimrod MRA4
- Boeing P-8 Poseidon
- Lockheed P-3 Orion
- Bombardier Aerospace DHC-8-MPA-D8
- Breguet Atlantique
- EADS CASA C-295 MPA
- Ilyushin Il-38
- Related lists
- , Japanese Ministry of Defense website, 2014 Defense Budget.
- 中日新聞:＜蜜月の終焉＞ ミライズに固執:防衛利権 蜜月の構図(CHUNICHI Web), Chunichi Shimbun website.
- P-1&C-X development reference paper p4-p6 in TRDI Defense Technology Symposium 2007
- P-1&C-X project reference paper p13 in TRDI Defense Technology Symposium 2007
- P-1&C-X development reference paper p12-p13
- Policy assessment's outline paper about P-1's production
- Policy assessment's reference paper about P-1 production
- TRDI News
- Japan's test programme for maritime patrol and transport aircraft under way
- "Kawasaki XP-1 develops cracks in ground testing". Flightglobal.com. 8 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "KHI gives MSDF first P-1 antisub patrol aircraft". 27 March 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "New MSDF patrol jets grounded since May". 21 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Japan’s Kawasaki XP-1 patrol aircraft makes first flight
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kawasaki P-1.|
- MAST Asia 2015
- Technical Research and Development Institute, Ministry of Defense (Japanese)
- TRDI News(Japanese)
- Reference of TRDI Defense Technology Symposium 2007(P-1&F7-10's data is S2&G7)
- Policy assessments database at H19(P-1's data is No1)
- Policy assessments database at H13(P-1's data is No15)
- Kawasaki Sky-High Expectations for Japan’s P-X and C-X Aircraft, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Scope Quarterly Newsletter No.73 October 2007
- Asagumo graph(Japanese)
- KHI (Kawasaki) P-X Project in CASR
- Pictures of Kawasaki XP-1
- Youtube video of first Kawasaki XP-1 flight