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Kayaking is the use of a Kayak for moving across water. Over the years, kayaking has evolved into a popular water sport. It is distinguished from canoeing by the sitting position of the paddler and the number of blades on the paddle. A kayak is defined by the International Canoe Federation (the world sanctioning body) as a boat where the paddler faces forward, legs in front, using a double-bladed paddle.[1] Most kayaks have closed decks, although "sit-on-top" and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well.[citation needed]

Eight Primary Classifications of Kayaking:[citation needed]

  • Polo
  • Slalom
  • Whitewater
  • Surf
  • Touring/expedition
  • Light touring/day tripping
  • Sprint/racing
  • General recreation

From these primary classifications stem many sub-classes. For example, a fishing kayak is simply a general-recreation kayak outfitted with accessories that make it easier from which to fish.[2] A creek kayak is a certain type of whitewater kayak, designed to handle narrow gully type rivers and falls.[citation needed] Also within these classifications are many levels of performance which further separate the individual models.

Beginners will typically start out with a general recreation kayaks. Recreation kayaks have larger cockpit openings to make entry and exiting easier, they are wider in width for more stability.[3]


Kayaks are also classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, manoeuvrability, stability, and paddling style. Kayaks can be made of metal, fibreglass, wood, plastic, fabrics, and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber. Each material also has its specific advantage, including strength, durability, portability, flexibility, resistance to UV, and storage requirements. For example, Wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand, but they are heavy to transport. Inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be dried, deflated, and stored.[4]

When kayaks are built by hand, it is common to use software systems to aid the craftsman to ensure proper buoyancy and displacement.[5]

Glowworm Kayaking at Waimarino Adventure Park


There are several major configurations of kayaks. "Sit on tops", as the name suggests, involve sitting on top of the kayak in an open area. "Cockpit style" involves sitting with the legs and hips inside the kayak hull with a spray deck or "spray skirt" that creates a water resistant seal around the waist. "Inflatables" are a hybrid of the two previous configurations, these boats have an open deck, but the paddler sits below the level of the deck. "Tandems" are configured for multiple paddlers, in contrast to the single person designs featured by most kayaks. Tandems can be used by two or even three paddlers. How a kayak is configured has nothing to do with its classification. All configurations are represented in each of the five primary classifications.

Activities involving kayaks[edit]

Kayakers off the coast of Raspberry Island (Alaska)

Because of their range and adaptability, kayaks can be useful for other outdoor activities such as diving, fishing, wilderness exploration and search and rescue during floods.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "ICF - Canoeing, Kayaking and Rowing: So what's the difference anyway?". Canoeicf.com. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
  2. ^ Tim Allard. "Outfitting Your Kayak for Fishing". Basspro.com. Retrieved 2013-12-28. 
  3. ^ "Kayaks: How to Choose". Rei.com. 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
  4. ^ "Kayak Types". Smart-start-kayaking.com. Retrieved 2013-11-07. 
  5. ^ Adirondack Kayak Works - "aided by software providing the proper buoyancy and displacement" http://adirondackkayakworks.com/

Uncited References[edit]

  1. The Bombproof Roll and Beyond (1993) P. Dutky, Menasha Ridge Press, ISBN 0-89732-085-9
  2. International Canoe Federation (2007) http://www.canoeicf.com/
  3. kayaking for beginners