Kazakh Khanate

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Kazakh Khanate
Қазақ хандығы

1465–1847


Alleged flag of the Kazakh Khanate

Motto
Alash!
Capital Turkistan
Languages Kazakh language
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
Khan
 -  1465–1480 Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan (first)
History
 -  Established 1465
 -  Disestablished 1847

Kazakh Khanate (Kazakh: Қазақ хандығы, Qazaq xandığı) was a Kazakh state that existed in 1456–1847, located roughly on the territory of present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. At its height the khanate ruled from eastern Cumania (modern-day West Kazakhstan) to most of Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and the Syr Darya river with military confrontation as far as Astrakhan and Khorasan Province, which is now in Iran. Slaves were also captured by frequent Kazakh raids on territory belonging to Russia,[1] Central Asia, and Western Siberia (Bashkortostan) during the Kazakh Khanate.[2][3][4] The Khanate was later weakened by a series of Kalmyk/Oirat invasions, devastating raids and warfare, and gradually lost control and autonomy to the Russian Empire.

From the sixteenth through the early nineteenth century, the most powerful nomadic peoples were the Kazakhs and the Oirats.[5]

History[edit]

The Kazakh Khanate was founded in 1456-1465 by Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan, on the banks of Jetysu ("seven rivers") in the southeastern part of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. The founding of the Kazakh Khanate is considered the ethnogenesis of the Kazakh nation. The formation of the independent Kazakh Khanate began when several tribes under the rule of sultans Janybek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan. The sultans led their people toward Mogolistan, eventually settling and founding an independent state. The new Khanate soon became a buffer state between the Mongolians and the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr.

Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan (1465–1480)[edit]

Although both Janybek Khan and Kerey Khan were considered the founding rulers of the Kazakh Khanate, it was Kerei Khan who initially wielded the most power. Upon the death of Kerei Khan in 1470, Janybek Khan became the sole ruler. The early years of the Kazakh Khanate were marked by struggles for control of the steppe against the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaybani. In 1470, the Kazakhs defeated Muhammad Shaybani at the city of Turkistan, forcing the Uzbeks to retreat south to Samarkand and Bukhara.

Burunduk Khan (1480–1511)[edit]

In 1480 Karai Khan's son Burunduk became khan. During his reign the Kazakhs were able to muster an army of 50,000 men and to repeatedly defeat the forces of Muhammad Shaybani along the Syr Darya river.

Kasym Khan (1511–1518)[edit]

The manuscript of "Tarikh-Safavi", written in ancient Persian by Persian historians, wrote about Kasim Khan, ruler of Dasht-i-Kipchak. The manuscript describes how a Kazakh squad of soldiers helped Khan Sheibani of Bukhara annex the Iranian city of Khorasan. Kasim Khan committed a squad of eight thousand dzhigits and Khorasan was taken.[6]

Expansion of the Kazakh Khanate[edit]

A.
Highest extent of Kazakh Khanate.

During the reign of Kasym Khan, the territories of the Kazakh Khanate expanded considerably. As Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat later wrote in his Tarikh-i-Rashidi, "Kasym Khan now brought the Dasht-i-Kipchak under his absolute control, in a manner that no one, with the exception of Jochi, had ever done before. His army exceeded a thousand thousand". Kasym Khan instituted the first Kazakh code of laws in 1520, called "Қасым ханның қасқа жолы" (transliterated, "Qasım xannıñ qazqa jolı" — "Bright Road of Kasym Khan"). Kasym Khan also ratified his alliance with the Timurid leader Babur, particularly after the fall of the Shaybanids, and was thus praised by the Mughals and the populace of Samarqand.

Mumash Khan (1518–1523)[edit]

Manṣūr Khān led an expedition against the Kazakhs in 1522 in response to their raids from Sayram into the Farghana.[7] Thereafter, Sayram remained out of the hands of the Uzbeks and came under the control of the Khazakhs.

Tahir Khan (1523–1529)[edit]

Buidash Khan (1529–1533)[edit]

Togym Khan (1533–1538)[edit]

Khak-Nazar Khan (1537–1580)[edit]

Under Khak-Nazar Khan, also known as Haq-Nazar Khan[8] or Ak Nazar Khan,[9] the Kazakh Khanate faced competition from several directions: the Nogai Horde in the west, the Khanate of Sibir in the north, Moghulistan in the east and the Khanate of Bukhara in the south. Initially, Khak-Nazar Khan led the Kazakhs in two major battles against Khanate of Bukhara at Tashkent, then against the Chagatai leader Abdur-Rashid Khan. In 1568, the Kazakhs successfully defeated the Nogai Horde at the Emba River and reached Astrakhan, but were repelled by Russian forces. [10] [11] [12]

Shygai Khan (1580–1582)[edit]

Tauekel Khan (1582–1598)[edit]

Tauekel Khan expanded the control of the Kazakh Khanate over Tashkent, Fergana, Andijan and Samarkand. In 1598, Kazakh forces approached Bukhara and besieged it for 12 days, but afterwards the Bukharan leader Pir-Muhammad and reinforcements under the command of his brother Baki-Muhammad pushed back the Kazakhs. In that battle, Tauekel Khan was wounded, and died during the retreat back to Tashkent.

Esim Khan (1598–1628)[edit]

After the death of Tauekel Khan came Esim Sultan, son of Sheehan Khan. His reign was the time of the next (third) strengthening of the Kazakh Khanate after Kasim Khan and Khak-Nazar Khan. Esim Khan moved the capital of the khanate to Sygnak in Turkestan and suppressed the revolts of Karakalpaks.

There followed a 15-year period of calm between the Kazakh Khanate and the Khanate of Bukhara.

Esim Khan established peace with the Khanate of Bukhara and returned to them control of Samarkand. However, Bukhara was still bitter about the loss of Tashkent, and that led to additional conflicts. Starting in 1607, the Khanate of Bukhara engaged in several battles and eventually obtained control of Tashkent.

Esim Khan united the Kazakh army and began a campaign against the Tashkent Khan Tursun Muhammad and Khan of Bukhara. In 1627, he defeated the enemy. Esim Khan abolished the Tashkent Khanate and the war finally ended.

Salqam-Jangir Khan (1629–1680)[edit]

During Salqam-Jangir Khan's reign, a new and powerful rival for the Kazakhs appeared in the east, known as the Zunghar Khanate. The Zunghar had recently converted to Mahayana Buddhism and their Erdeni Batur believed he could reestablish the 13th-century empire of Genghis Khan. However, much had changed since the days of the Mongol Empire and the Kazakhs, like the Kirghiz and the Tatars, had almost entirely converted to Islam under the authority of Emir Timur, who also reestablished new centers of power such as Samarqand and Bukhara, which had greatly influenced the founding of the Kazakh Khanate.

In 1652, the Zunghar leader Erdeni Batur attempted to eliminate the Kazakh Khanate and its inhabitants; he dispatched more than 50,000 Zunghar warriors against the Kazakh Khanate, which refused to submit to him. The early stages of their ferocious conflict took place in the Altai Mountains and later battles were fought on the vast steppes. Unable to halt the advance of the Zunghars, the Kazakh Ghazis and their leader Salqam-Jangir Khan's forces were defeated. Unfortunately in the year 1680, Salqam-Jangir Khan died in a battle, protecting his people against the Zunghars.

Tauke Khan (1680–1718)[edit]

Tauke Khan was elected as the leader of the Kazakh Khanate, immediately after the death of Salqam-Jangir Khan, and he led the battered Kazakh warriors across the steppes to resist the advance of the Zunghars. Unfortunately the already weakened Kazakhs were once again faced with defeat at Sayram and soon lost many major cities to the Zunghars.

Tauke Khan soon sought alliances with the Kirghiz in the south-east who were also facing a Zunghar invasion in their Issyk-Kul Lake region and even the Uyghurs of the Tarim Basin. In 1687, Zunghars besieged Hazrat-e Turkestan and were forced to retreat after the arrival led by Subhan Quli Khan.

In 1697, Tsewang Rabtan became the leader of the Zunghar Khanate, and he dispatched several of his commanders to subjugate Tauke Khan and many major wars between the Zunghars and the Kazakh Khanate continued into the following years: 1709, 1711—1712, 1714 and 1718. The Kazakh Khanate had indeed been weakened by the confrontation and nearly one-third of their population had been lost by the ensuing conflict. With Tauke Khan's death in 1718, the Kazakh Khanate splintered into three Jüz — the Great jüz, the Middle jüz and the Little jüz. Each Jüz had its own Khan from this time onward.

Tauke Khan is also known for refining the Kazakh code of laws, and reissuing it under the title "Жеті Жарғы" (transliterated, "Jeti Jarği"—"Seven Charters").

List of raids by Kazakhs on Russia territory[edit]

During the 18th century, raids by Kazakhs on Russia's territory of Orenburg were common; the Kazakhs captured many Russians and sold them as slaves in the Central Asian market. The Volga Germans were also victims of Kazakh raids; they were ethnic Germans living along the River Volga in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov.

Approximate areas occupied by the three Kazakh jüzes in the early 20th century. Green represents the Little jüz, orange represents the Middle jüz and red represents the Great jüz.

In 1717, 3,000 Russian slaves, men, women, and children, were sold in Khiva by Kazakh and Kyrgyz tribesmen.[13]

In 1722, they stole cattle, robbed from Russian villages and people trapped in captivity and sold in the slave markets of Central Asia (in 1722 in Bukhara were over 5,000 Russian prisoners). In the middle of the 17th century, 500 Russians were annually sold to Khiva by Kazakhs.

In 1730, the Kazakhs' frequent raids into Russian lands were a constant irritant and resulted in the enslavement of many of the Tsar's subjects, who were sold on the Kazakh steppe.[14]

In 1736, urged on by Kirilov, the Kazakhs of the Lesser and Middle Hordes launched raids into Bashkir lands, killing or capturing many Bashkirs in the Siberian and Nogay districts.[15]

In 1743, an order was given by the senate in response to the failure to defend against the Kazakh attack on a Russian settlement, which resulted in 14 Russians killed, 24 wounded. In addition 96 Cossacks were captured by Kazakhs.[16]

In 1755 Nepliev tried to enlist Kazakh support by ending the reprisal raids and promising that the Kazakhs could keep the Bashkir women and children,[17] and organized the massacre of 10,000 Bashkirs by the Kazakhs during the Bashkir rising.[18]

In the period between 1764 and 1803, according to data collected by the Orenburg Commission, twenty Russian caravans were attacked and plundered. Kazakh raiders attacked even big caravans which were accompanied by numerous guards.[19]

In spring 1774, the Russians demanded the Khan return 256 Russians captured by a recent Kazakh raid.[20]

In summer 1774, when Russian troops in the Kazan region were suppressing the rebellion led by the Cossack leader Pugachev, the Kazakhs launched more than 240 raids and captured many Russians and herds along the border of Orenburg.[21]

Darrel P. Kaiser wrote, "Kazakh-Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 German settlers in Russia. In 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved. "[22]

Caesarfeld, founded in 1774, was attacked by Kazakh or Kirghiz tribesmen and destroyed. The Catholic village of Chaisol was destroyed in 1774. The second attack on the Karaman in the colony of Mariental took place in August 1774. All the livestock and the people and property were stolen and carried across the Ural River into the Russian steppe. The total number of captives taken away from Mariental was about 300, of whom very few came back. Those captives that survived (mostly women and children) were eventually sold by the Kirghiz into the harems of wealthy Muslims in areas under the control of Turkey.[23]

In October 24, 1774, the Kazakh or Kirghiz attacked the colonies of Seelmann, Leitsinger, Keller, and Holzel, and carried away 317 persons into slavery.[24]

In 1776, the colony of the Mariental was attacked and its inhabitants were enslaved. One story tells that someone (probably Pastor Werboner) had his tongue cut out and that hundreds of people were beheaded.[25]

In August 16, 1785 was the last attack on the colonies by the Kazakh-Kyrgyz; a woman, a child and four elders were killed and 130 people taken as prisoners during the attack. Government forces quickly caught the attackers while the latter were moving the prisoners. In the battle, 70 Kazakhs and Kyrgyz were killed and all the prisoners were freed.[26]

In 1799, the biggest Russian caravan which was plundered at that time lost goods worth 295,000 rubles.[27]

By 1830, the Russian government estimated that two hundred Russians were kidnapped and sold into slavery in Khiva every year.[28]

Ablai Khan (1771–1781)[edit]

Ablai Khan was a khan of the Middle jüz or Horde who managed to extend his control over the other two jüzes to include all of the Kazakhs. Before he became khan, Ablai participated in the wars against the Zunghars and proved himself a talented organizer and commander. He led numerous campaigns against Kokand Khanate and the Kyrgyz. In the last campaign his troops liberated many cities in Southern Kazakhstan and even captured Tashkent. During his actual reign, Ablai Khan did his best to keep Kazakhstan as independent as possible from the encroaching Russian Empire and the Chinese Qing dynasty. He employed s multi-vector foreign policy to protect the tribes from Chinese, Tatar and Dzungar aggressors. He also sheltered the Dzungar Oirat taishas Amursana and Dawachi from attacks by the Khoshut-Orait King of Tibet, Lha-bzang Khan, as the Dzungar Khanate fractured following the death of Galdan Tseren in 1745. However, once Amursana and Dawachi were no longer allies, Ablai Khan took the opportunity to capture herds and territory from the Dzungars.[29]

Kenesary Khan (1841–1847)[edit]

Kenesary Khan was proclaimed khan of the Kazakhs when the Russian Empire was already fully in control of Kazakhstan, and in fact the Kazakhs were prohibited (by Russian law) from selecting their leader after 1822. Kenesary Khan's popular rise was in defiance of Russian control of Kazakhstan, and his time as khan was spent in continuous fighting with the Russian imperial forces until his death in 1847. Widely regarded as a freedom fighter and popular as a leading voice against the increasingly aggressive and forceful policies of the Russian Empire, Kenesary was ruthless in his actions and unpredictable as a military strategist. By 1846, however, his resistance movement had lost momentum as some of his rich associates had defected to the Russian Empire, having been promised great riches. Betrayed, Kenesary Khan grew increasingly suspicious of the remaining members of the Resistance, possibly further alienating them. In 1847, the Khan of the Kazakhs met his death in Kyrgyz lands during his assault on northern Kyrgyz tribes. He was executed by Ormon Khan, the sarybagysh tribe leader who was subsequently rewarded by the Russians with a larger estate and an official administrative role, but was still widely regarded as a traitor by most nomadic tribes. Kenesary Khan's head was cut off and sent to the Russians.

During the last decade, Kenesary Khan has become increasingly regarded as a hero in Kazakh literature and media. This, however, is a relatively recent trend since more outspoken views were not possible until Kazakhstan was no longer part of the USSR. Today, a monument to Kenesary Khan can be seen on the shore of the river Esil in the capital of Kazakhstan, Astana.

Abolition of slavery[edit]

The Russian administration liberated the slaves of the Kazakhs in 1859.[30] However, isolated abductions of Russians or Ukrainians by Kazakhs for the slave markets of Central Asia continued until the Tsars' conquest of Khiva and Bukhara in the 1860s.[31] At major markets in Bukhara, Samarkand, Karakul, Karshi and Charju, slaves consisted mainly of Iranians and Russians, and some Kalmuks; they were brought there by Turkmen, Kazakh and Kyrgyz.[32] A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centered in the Khanate of Khiva from the 17th to the 19th century.[33] During the first half of the 19th century alone, some one million Persians, as well as an unknown number of Russians, were enslaved and transported to Central Asian khanates.[34][35] When the Russian troops took Khiva in 1873 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, captured by Turkoman raiders.[citation needed] According of Josef Wolff (Report of 1843–1845) the population of the Khanate of Bukhara was 1,200,000, of whom 200,000 were Persian slaves.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March [1]
  2. ^ The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott
  3. ^ Studies in History, Volume 4
  4. ^ Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky [2]
  5. ^ Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa. By Ali Aldosari
  6. ^ In the Persian manuscript of the "Tarikh-Safavi" revealed new information about the "king of Dasht-i-Kipchak" Kazakh Khan Kasymov [3]
  7. ^ Tārīkh-i Rashīdī, tr. Elias and Ross, 79, 358
  8. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/254780/Haqq-Nazar
  9. ^ A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi
  10. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/254780/Haqq-Nazar
  11. ^ A History of the Moghuls of Central Asi: The Tarikh-i-Rashidi By Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlt, N. Elias, Sir E Denison Ross page 121
  12. ^ http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=1pkeWqq7pdgC&pg=PA121&dq=sultan+Abdul+rashid+khan&hl=en&sa=X&ei=poyNUMidMZKZhQen54DoCA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Ak%20nazar%20khan&f=false
  13. ^ The History of the Central Asian Republics By Peter Roudik
  14. ^ Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific By G. Patrick March [4]
  15. ^ Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky [5]
  16. ^ Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh By Yuriy Anatolyevich Malikov [6]
  17. ^ The Kazakhs By Martha Brill Olcott
  18. ^ Studies in History, Volume 4
  19. ^ Formation of a Borderland Culture: Myths and Realities of Cossack-Kazakh [7]
  20. ^ Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky [8]
  21. ^ Russia's Steppe Frontier: The Making Of A Colonial Empire, 1500-1800 By Michael Khodarkovsky [9]
  22. ^ Darrel P. Kaiser (2006). Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser Of the German-Russian Volga Colonies. Darrel P. Kaiser. ISBN 978-1-4116-9894-9. Retrieved May 31, 2012. 
  23. ^ Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser [10]
  24. ^ Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser [11]
  25. ^ Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser [12]
  26. ^ Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser [13]
  27. ^ Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser of the German-Russian Volga Colonies By Darrel P. Kaiser [14]
  28. ^ Pilgrims on the Silk Road: A Muslim-Christian Encounter in Khiva By Walter R. Ratliff [15]
  29. ^ Perdue, Peter C (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5. 
  30. ^ "Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan". Src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  31. ^ Commissar and Mullah: Soviet-Muslim Policy from 1917 To 1924 By Glenn L Roberts [16]
  32. ^ Vol. VI: Towards Contemporary Civilization: From the Mid-Nineteenth Century ... edited by Chahryar Adle, Madhavan K.. Palat, Anara Tabyshalieva [17]
  33. ^ "Adventure in the East – TIME". Time. 6 April 1959. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  34. ^ Ichan-Kala, Encyclopædia Britannica
  35. ^ Mayhew, Bradley. "Fabled Cities of Central Asia: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva: Robin Magowan, Vadim E. Gippenreiter". Amazon.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  36. ^ Report of Josef Wolff 1843–1845

Kazakh Khanate is described in historical texts such as the Tarikh-i-Rashidi (1541–1545) by Muhammad Haidar Dughlat, and Zhamigi-at-Tavarikh (1598–1599) by Kadyrgali Kosynuli Zhalayir.