Kazakhstan–Turkey relations

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Kazakh–Turkish relations
Map indicating locations of Kazakhstan and Turkey

Kazakhstan

Turkey

Kazakh–Turkish relations are foreign relations between Kazakhstan and Turkey. Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December 1991, being the first state to recognize the independence of Kazakhstan, when Kazakhstan declared its independence.[1] Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March 1992.[1] These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs.[2] Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul. Turkey has an embassy in Almaty and a branch office in Astana.

History[edit]

Turkey established diplomatic relations with Kazakhstan following the latter's independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. As two large nations in Eurasia and sharing the extensive cultural, historical and linguistic heritage of Turkic peoples, both nations have sought to develop closer relations and promote Turkic identity and friendship amongst other Turkic nations in the region.[2]

Diplomatic relations[edit]

Turkey is the first country to recognise Kazakhstan’s independence in 1991, but the relations between two nations have deep roots of being used to be the parts of a big family and sharing the same territory until the 11th century, when the ancestors of today’s Turks living in Turkey moved to Middle East and created “second Turan” – Te Ottoman Empire. The first official diplomatic relations started between Kazakh Han and Ottoman Sultan in 1713. However, being separated by historical circumstances, due to which the connection with each other had been lost. Since the late 20th century, the peoples of Kazakhstan and Turkey have gained the opportunity to restore the broken relationship, to establish multilateral contacts at all levels, in all areas of cooperation. Tough, the first steps of the relations in modern stage started prior to the breakdown of the Soviet Union. In March 1991, Turkey and Kazakhstan signed an Agreement on Cooperation in political, trade-economic, scientific-technical, ecological, cultural, social, communication and in other areas. In September 1991, the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Turkey signed the Declaration containing the principles and objectives of bilateral relations. In this context, the principles of friendly relations were emphasised based on the objectives of international documents.[3]The incumbent President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev during his visit to Turkey in the same year defined the 21st century as the “Turks’ century” On 2 March 1992, the diplomatic relations were established and in the same year – the embassies of both countries were opened in Kazakhstan and Turkey. Since 1999, the Consulate also started to Function (since 2002 – the Consulate General) of Kazakhstan in Istanbul. Nowadays, Kazakhstan has 9 representations in Turkey. These representations include an embassy in Ankara, consulates in Adana, Antakya, Antalya, Bursa, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, and Nevsehir. Te Turkish Embassy in Almaty was opened in March 1992 and in 2008 Turkish Embassy was moved from Almaty to Astana. In addition to the embassy in Astana, Turkey has also a consulate general in Almaty.[4]

Economic relations[edit]

Turkey contributes 2 billion USD in Kazakhstan's total 50 billion USD investment volume. Turkey accounts for 1.2% of Kazakhstan’s total trade volume and has actively participated in the construction and textile industries of Kazakhstan.[2] In 2005 trade turnover between the countries reached USD 556.8 million, showing 13.8% growth from the $500 million level in 2004, and slated to climb to USD 1 billion in trade turnover volume in 2006.[2] Turkey hopes to expand investment in Kazakhstan's energy and telecommunications industries. Kazakhstan has increased quotas for the hiring of Turkish workers for construction projects.[2] Kazakhstan is considering the construction of an oil refinery on the Black Sea jointly with Turkey.[2]

Strategic cooperation[edit]

In bolstering cooperation over energy resources, Kazakhstan has sought to assert its independence from Russia's influence.[2] In July 2006, the People's Republic of China, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia gathered in Astana to develop a transport corridor linking Central Asia with the South Caucasus and Western Europe that would increase the annual trade and cargo shipment capacity up to 30 million tons.[2] Turkey has supported Kazakhstan's bid to join the World Trade Organization while the latter has actively supported Turkey's bid for membership in the European Union.[2] Both nations have also sought to promote closer cooperation between Turkic nations of Central Asia.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Relations between Turkey and Kazakhstan". Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yermukanov, Marat (7 December 2006). "Kazakhstan and Turkey spearhead the integration of Turkic nations". Eurasian Daily Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) 3 (226). Retrieved 10 October 2008. [dead link]
  3. ^ Davut Han Aslan (2012),Turkey’s Foreign Policy of the Justice and Development Party Governments (2002-2011) ,PhD Dissertation, Warsaw University, Warsaw, June>
  4. ^ Davut Han Aslan, TURKEY-KAZAKHSTAN RELATIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF MUTUAL RELATIONS SINCE THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION, Vistula Acadecmic Quarterly,2014; 4(42): 133-145,