Qazvin

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Qazvin
قزوین
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
Shazdeh Hosein shrine
Official seal of Qazvin
Seal
Qazvin is located in Iran
Qazvin
Qazvin
Coordinates: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50.000°E / 36.267; 50.000Coordinates: 36°16′N 50°00′E / 36.267°N 50.000°E / 36.267; 50.000
Country  Iran
Province Qazvin
County Qazvin
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • Mayor Ramin Soltanzadeh
 • City Council Mammad Heydari
Bakir Noonvaei
Davar Veiseh
Atabak Jaghi
Kamal Kamari
Kolah Ghermezi
Kamran Atabaki />Ghazamfar Shabkhiz
Mohammad Khordadian
Khosrow Zanjirbafi
Shahla Ataei
Maryam Nokhostin[1]
Elevation 1,278 m (4,193 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 381,598
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IDST (UTC+4:30)
Area code(s) 028
Website http://www.qazvin.ir

Qazvin (/kæzˈvn/; Persian: قزوین‎, IPA: [ɢæzˈviːn] ( )), also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran. Qazvin was an ancient capital in the Persian Empire and nowadays is known as the calligraphy capital of Iran. It is famous for its Baghlava, carpet paterns, poets, political newspaper and pahvali (Middle Persian) influence on its accent. At the 2011 census, its population was 381,598.[2]

Located in 150 km (93 mi) northwest of Tehran, in the Qazvin Province, it is at an altitude of about 1,800 m (5,900 ft) above sea level. The climate is cold but dry, due to its position south of the rugged Alborz range called KTS Atabakiya.

History[edit]

Shah Tahmasp I (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire.
"Peighambariyeh": Here, four Jewish saints are said to be buried. Their Arabic names are: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.

The city was a former capital of the Persian Empire under Safavids.[3] It is a provincial capital today that has been an important cultural center throughout history.

Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.

The city today known as Qazvin is thought to have been founded by Shapur II, King of Persia in 250 CE, under the name Shad Shahpur(shad can be read happy), when he built a fortification there to control regional tensions.

Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at important moments of Iranian history. Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Hulagu Khan (13th century), Shah Tahmasp (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire (founded in 1501 AD), a status that Qazvin retained for half a century.[3]

In 1920 Qazvin was used as a base for the British Norperforce.[4] It was from here that the 1921 Persian coup d'etat that led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty was launched. And it became State in 2001

People[edit]

See also: Qazvini

The majority of the people of the province and the city of Qazvin are Persians and the language of the people of Qazvin is Persian language with the Qazvini accent.[5] Other languages include Tati (in Takestan), Romani, Luri, Azarbaijani.[5]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Qazvin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
7.6
(45.7)
13.7
(56.7)
20.0
(68)
25.9
(78.6)
32.2
(90)
35.6
(96.1)
34.6
(94.3)
30.9
(87.6)
23.1
(73.6)
15.4
(59.7)
8.1
(46.6)
21.0
(69.8)
Average low °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.7
(35.1)
6.4
(43.5)
10.6
(51.1)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
16.9
(62.4)
12.9
(55.2)
7.8
(46)
2.9
(37.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
6.8
(44.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 44.5
(1.752)
40.8
(1.606)
52.1
(2.051)
41.0
(1.614)
34.5
(1.358)
5.9
(0.232)
1.2
(0.047)
1.9
(0.075)
0.8
(0.031)
21.7
(0.854)
27.8
(1.094)
44.0
(1.732)
316.2
(12.446)
Avg. precipitation days 10.5 10.1 13.3 13.3 12.7 4.5 2.4 2.3 2.0 7.7 7.9 9.7 96.4
Source: World Meteorological Organisation

Main sights[edit]

Qazvin contains several archeological excavations. And in the middle of the city lie the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area.[citation needed]

Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavid era, dating to the period in which it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Chehelsotoon (Kolah Farangi) mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin.

After Islam, the popularity of mystics (tasawwuf), as well as the prominence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (fiqh), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools. They include:

  • Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin
  • Heydarieh mosque
  • Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavieh's monarchy era.
  • Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present day form is attributed to the Seljukian era.
  • Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
  • Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
  • Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried.[6][7][8]
  • Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: Founded in 1648.
  • Salehieh Madrasa and Mosque: Founded in 1817 by Mulla Muhammad Salih Baraghani.
  • Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: Renovated in 1903.
  • Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
  • Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
  • Shazdeh Hosein Shrine (location: 36°15′26″N 50°00′02″E / 36.257253°N 50.000678°E / 36.257253; 50.000678); a c.15C CE shrine to a c.9C CE Shiite saint.
The Russian Church of Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of Islamic Azad University of Qazvin.

About 100 km (62 mi) south-west of Qazvin are the tombs of two Saljuki era princes — Abu Saeed Bijar, son of Sa'd, and Abu Mansur Iltai, son of Takin — located in two separate towers known as the Kharraqan twin towers. Constructed in 1067 CE, these were the first monuments in Islamic architecture to include a non-conic two-layered dome. Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.

Qazvin has three buildings built by Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall), a water reservoir, and the Cantor church, where a Russian pilot is buried.

Economy[edit]

A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran–Iraq War.

Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz. Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of Iran's electrical power.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Qazvin has several institutes of higher education:

Qazvin modern towers[edit]

Some famous residential towers are: Punak (536 units), Aseman, Elahieh, Bademestan (440 units in 17 floors) and Tejarat tower with 28 floors.

Qazvin shopping complexes[edit]

  • City Star in Khayam Street
  • Ferdowsi in Ferdowsi Street
  • Iranian in Adl Street
  • Narvan in Ferdowsi Street

Bridges[edit]

  • Naderi
  • Molasadra
  • Ertebatat
  • Persian Gulf (Khalij Fars)
  • Abotorabi
  • Nasr
  • Motahari
  • Imam Ali
  • Rajaei

Famous hotels[edit]

Famous parks[edit]

  • Shohada
  • Dehkhoda
  • Beheshti
  • Fadak (Barajin)
  • Mellat
  • Al-Ghadir
  • Afarinesh

Qazvin hypermarkets[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Qazvin is served by Qazvin railway station.

Sport[edit]

Qazvin is a well-known city because of its famous athletes. The city has highly focused on athletic teams along recent years. Techmash is a basketball team which entered Iranian Basketball Super League in 2013.

Notable Qazvinis[edit]

Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. This is the Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

There have been an abundance of scientists and mystics who lived in Qazvin, or came from Qazvin, whose tombs are scattered throughout the cities and villages of the province. These include:

  • Pre-Modern time:
  • Notable people buried in Qazvin:
    • Uwais Qarni, a celebrity of early Islam, thought to have been killed here while fighting against an army of Deilamian origin.[citation needed]
    • Ahmad Ghazali, famous Iranian sufi who died in 1126 CE and was buried beside Shahzadeh Hossein.
    • Ali Ibn Shäzän.
    • Shahzadeh Hossein, a c9C CE Shiite saint.

See also[edit]

Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921. Today this building is referred to as Shazdeh Hosein Shrine.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Tabriz
Capital of Iran (Persia)
1555–1598
Succeeded by
Isfahan
Preceded by
Tabriz
Capital of Safavid dynasty
1555–1598
Succeeded by
Isfahan