BICEP and Keck Array

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BICEP / Keck Array
PIA17993-DetectorsForInfantUniverseStudies-20140317.jpg
The BICEP2 detector array under a microscope
Location South Pole
Telescope style Radio telescope
Website www.cfa.harvard.edu/CMB/keckarray
Commons page Related media on Wikimedia Commons

BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) and the Keck Array are a series of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. They aim to measure the polarisation of the CMB; in particular, measuring the B-mode of the CMB. The experiments have had three generations of instrumentation, consisting of BICEP1, BICEP2 and the Keck Array, with BICEP3 being constructed as of 2014. On 17 March 2014, the collaboration announced that BICEP2 had made the first detection of so-called B-mode polarization, a possible signature of inflation in the very early Universe.

Purpose and collaboration[edit]

The purpose of the BICEP experiment is to measure the polarization of the CMB.[5] Specifically, it aims to measure the B-modes (curl component) of the polarization of the CMB.[6] BICEP operates from the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.[5] All three instruments have mapped the same part of the sky, around the South Celestial Pole.[5][7]

The institutions involved in the various instruments are Caltech, Cardiff University, University of Chicago, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CEA Grenoble (FR), University of Minnesota and Stanford University (all experiments); UC San Diego (BICEP1 and 2); National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), University of British Columbia and University of Toronto (BICEP2, Keck Array and BICEP3); and Case Western Reserve University (Keck Array).[6][8][9][10][11]

The series of experiments began at the California Institute of Technology in 2002. In collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, physicists Andrew Lange, Jamie Bock, Brian Keating, and William Holzapfel began the construction of the BICEP1 telescope which deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 2005 for a three-season observing run.[12] Immediately after deployment of BICEP1, the team, which now included Caltech postdoctoral fellows John Kovac and Chao-Lin Kuo, among others, began work on BICEP2. The telescope remained the same, but new detectors were inserted into BICEP2 using a completely different technology: a printed circuit board on the focal plane that could filter, process, image, and measure radiation from the cosmic microwave background. BICEP2 was deployed to the South Pole in 2009 to begin its three-season observing run which yielded the detection of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background.

BICEP1[edit]

The first BICEP instrument (known during development as the "Robinson gravitational wave background telescope") observed the sky at 100 and 150 GHz (3 mm and 2 mm wavelength) with an angular resolution of 1.0 and 0.7 degrees. It had an array of 98 detectors (50 at 100 GHz and 48 at 150 GHz), which were sensitive to the polarisation of the CMB.[5] A pair of detectors constitutes one polarization-sensitive pixel. The instrument was a prototype for future instruments; it started observing in January 2006[6] and ran until the end of 2008.[5]

BICEP2[edit]

BICEP2 telescope near South Pole Telescope
Keck Array at Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory

The second-generation instrument was BICEP2.[13] Featuring a greatly improved focal-plane transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer array of 512 sensors (256 pixels) operating at 150 GHz, this 26 cm aperture telescope replaced the BICEP1 instrument, and observed from 2010 to 2012.[14][15]

Reports started in March 2014 that BICEP2 had detected B-modes from gravitational waves in the early universe (called primordial gravitational waves), a result reported by the four co-principal investigators of BICEP2: John M. Kovac of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Chao-Lin Kuo of Stanford University; Jamie Bock of the California Institute of Technology; and Clem Pryke of the University of Minnesota. An announcement was made on 17 March 2014 from the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.[1][2][3][4][16] The reported detection was of B-modes at the level of r = 0.20+0.07
−0.05
, disfavouring the null hypothesis (r = 0) at the level of 7 sigma (5.9σ after foreground subtraction).[14] However, on 19 June 2014, lowered confidence in confirming the cosmic inflation findings was reported;[17][18] the accepted and reviewed version of the discovery paper contains an appendix discussing the possible production of the signal by dust.[19] In part because the large value of the tensor to scalar ratio, which contradicts limits from the Planck data,[20] this is considered the most likely explanation for the detected signal by many scientists. For example, on June 5, 2014 at a conference of the American Astronomical Society, astronomer David Spergel argued that the B-mode polarization detected by BICEP2 could instead be the result of light scattering off dust between the stars in our Milky Way galaxy.[21] A paper released by the Planck team in September 2014 provided the most accurate measurement yet of dust, concluding that the signal from dust is the same strength as that reported from BICEP. An upcoming joint analysis of BICEP and Planck data is expected.[22][23]

Keck Array[edit]

The main properties of the BICEP instruments
Instrument Start End Frequency Resolution Sensors (pixels) Refs
BICEP 2006 2008 100 GHz 0.93° 50 (25) [5][6]
150 GHz 0.60° 48 (24) [5]
BICEP2 2010 2012 150 GHz 0.52° 500 (250) [14]
Keck Array 2011 2011 150 GHz 0.52° 1488 (744) [7][24]
2012 2012 2480 (1240)
2013 1488 (744) [24]
100 GHz 992 (496)
BICEP3 2014/5 95 GHz 0.37° 2560 (1280) [25]

Immediately next to the BICEP telescope at the Martin A. Pomerantz Observatory building at the South Pole was an unused telescope mount previously occupied by the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer. The Keck Array was built to take advantage of this larger telescope mount.

The Keck Array consists of five polarimeters, each very similar to the BICEP2 design, but using a pulse tube refrigerator rather than a large liquid helium cryogenic storage dewar.

The first three started observations in the austral summer of 2010–11; another two started observing in 2012. All of the receivers observed at 150 GHz until 2013, when two of them were converted to observe at 100 GHz.[24] Each polarimeter consists of a refracting telescope (to minimise systematics) cooled by a pulse tube cooler to 4 K, and a Focal Plane Arrays of 512 transition edge sensors cooled to 250 mK, giving a total of 2560 detectors, or 1280 dual-polarization pixels.[7]

The project was funded by $2.3 million from W. M. Keck Foundation, as well as funding from the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the James and Nelly Kilroy Foundation and the Barzan Foundation.[6] The Keck Array project was originally led by Andrew Lange.[6]

BICEP3[edit]

Once the Keck array was completed in 2012, it was no longer cost-effective to continue to operate BICEP2. However, using the same technique as the Keck array to eliminate the large liquid helium Dewar, a much larger telescope is under construction for the unused BICEP telescope mount.

BICEP3 will consist of a single telescope with the same 2560 detectors (observing at 95 GHz) as the five-telescope Keck array, but a 55 cm aperture,[26] providing roughly twice the optical throughput of the entire Keck array. (One downside of the large focal plane is a larger 28° field of view,[27]:8 which will necessarily mean scanning some "dirtier" portions of the sky.) It will be deployed in the 2014–15 Austral summer season.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Staff (17 March 2014). "BICEP2 2014 Results Release". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Clavin, Whitney (17 March 2014). "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe". NASA. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Overbye, Dennis (17 March 2014). "Detection of Waves in Space Buttresses Landmark Theory of Big Bang". New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Overbye, Dennis (24 March 2014). "Ripples From the Big Bang". New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "BICEP: Robinson Gravitational Wave Background Telescope". Caltech. Retrieved 2014-03-13. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "W.M. Keck Foundation Gift to Enable Caltech and JPL Scientists to Research the Universe's Violent Origin". Caltech. 
  7. ^ a b c "Instrument - Keck Array South Pole". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  8. ^ "BICEP1 Collaboration". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  9. ^ "Collaboration - BICEP2 South Pole". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  10. ^ "Collaboration - Keck Array South Pole". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  11. ^ "BICEP3 Collaboration". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  12. ^ "NSF Award Abstract #0230438". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  13. ^ The BICEP2 CMB polarization experiment 7741. Proceedings of SPIE. 2010. p. 11. doi:10.1117/12.857864. 
  14. ^ a b c The BICEP2 Collaboration (2014). BICEP2 2014 I: Detection of B-mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales. 
  15. ^ The BICEP2 Collaboration (2014). BICEP2 2014 II: Experiment and Three-year Data Set. 
  16. ^ "Gravitational waves: have US scientists heard echoes of the big bang?". The Guardian. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  17. ^ Overbye, Dennis (19 June 2014). "Astronomers Hedge on Big Bang Detection Claim". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Amos, Jonathan (19 June 2014). "Cosmic inflation: Confidence lowered for Big Bang signal". BBC News. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  19. ^ Ade, P.A.R. et al (BICEP2 Collaboration) (19 June 2014). "Detection of B-Mode Polarization at Degree Angular Scales by BICEP2" (PDF). Physical Review Letters 112: 241101. arXiv:1403.3985. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.112x1101A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.241101. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  20. ^ Planck Collaboration (2014, to appear), "Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters", Astronomy & Astrophysics, arXiv:1303.5076, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321591 
  21. ^ Meg, Urry. "What's behind the Big Bang controversy?". http://edition.cnn.com. CNN.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  22. ^ Planck Collaboration Team (19 September 2014). "Planck intermediate results. XXX. The angular power spectrum of polarized dust emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes". ArXiv. arXiv:1409.5738. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  23. ^ Overbye, Dennis (22 September 2014). "Study Confirms Criticism of Big Bang Finding". New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2104. 
  24. ^ a b c "Keck Array South Pole". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  25. ^ a b "BICEP3". Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  26. ^ Searching for Inflation with CMB Polarimetry at the South Pole: the BICEP and Keck Array Program Hien Nguyen & Abby Vieregg JPL & Harvard 30 July 2013
  27. ^ Z. Ahmed; M. Amiri; S. J. Benton; J. J. Bock; R. Bowens-Rubin; I. Buder; E. Bullock; J. Connors; J. P. Filippini; J. A. Grayson; G. C. Hilton; V. V. Hristov; H. Hui; K. D. Irwin; J. Kang; K. S. Karkare; E. Karpel; J. M. Kovac; C. L. Kuo; C. B. Netterfield; H. T. Nguyen; R. O'Brient; R. W. Ogburn IV; C. Pryke; C. D. Reintsema; S. Richter; K. L. Thompson; A. D. Turner; A. G. Vieregg; W. L. K. Wu; K. W. Yoon (2014-07-14), BICEP3: a 95 GHz refracting telescope for degree-scale CMB polarization, arXiv:1407.5928 

External links[edit]