Kedu Plain is the fertile volcanic plain that lies between the volcanoes Mount Sumbing and Mount Sundoro to the west, and Mount Merbabu and Mount Merapi to the east on Central Java, Indonesia. The plain also bordering the Menoreh hills in the southwest and Prambanan Plain in the southeast. The Progo River runs through the center of this plain, from its source on the slope of Mount Sumbing to Java southern coast facing Indian Ocean. It has been a significant location in Central Javanese history for over a millennium, as it contains traces of the Sailendra dynasty as well as Borobudur and associated locations.
In the last couple of hundred years it has been the location of the important Dutch East Indies military settlement of Magelang and that status carried on into the Indonesia era. It is also the location of the hill that has been associated with the notion of the nail of Java at Mount Tidar in Magelang. During colonial Dutch East Indies period, Kedu Plain belonged within the Kedu residency administration. Today Kedu residency consists the of Magelang Regency, Magelang City, and Temanggung Regency administrative units.
- Borobudur. The gigantic 8th century stone mandala Buddhist monument was built by the Sailendras.
- Mendut. The 8th century buddhist temple is housing three large stone statue of Vairocana, Avalokiteshvara, and Vajrapani.
- Pawon. The small 8th century buddhist temple near the bank of Progo River is located between Mendut and Borobudur.
- Ngawen. The 8th century buddhist temple located about 5 kilometers east of Mendut temple.
- Banon. The ruins of Hindu temple located several hundred meters north of Pawon temple. However there is no significant remnants of the temple survived thus the reconstruction is impossible. There is only the statues of Shiva, Vishnu, Agastya, and Ganesha discovered, now displayed at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
- Canggal. Also known as Candi Gunung Wukir, is one of the oldest Hindu temple in the area. The temple located in Muntilan area, near the temple was discovered Canggal Inscription connected with Sri Sanjaya, the king of Mataram Kingdom.
Indonesian language further readings
- Suroyo, A. M. Juliati. (1900) Industri perkebunan dan dampaknya perkebunan kopi di karesidenan Kedu, 1850-1900 [S.l.] : Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, (Seminar Sejarah Nasional V, Semarang, 27-30 Agustus 1990).
- Suroyo, Agustina Magdalena Djuliati. (2000) Eksploitasi kolonial abad XIX : kerja wajib di Keresidenan Kedu 1800-1890 Yogyakarta : Yayasan untuk Indonesia. ISBN 979-8681-56-8
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