Keelung

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"Jilong" redirects here. For other uses, see Jilong (disambiguation).
Keelung
基隆市
Provincial city
Clockwise from top: Keelung's Skyline, Zhongzheng Park, Zhongzheng & Daye Tunnel, Rocks at the coast of Keelung, and Port of Keelung
Clockwise from top: Keelung's Skyline, Zhongzheng Park, Zhongzheng & Daye Tunnel, Rocks at the coast of Keelung, and Port of Keelung
Flag of Keelung
Flag
Official seal of Keelung
Seal
Nickname(s): The Rainy Port (雨港)
Taiwan ROC political division map Keelung City.svg
Coordinates: 25°08′N 121°44′E / 25.133°N 121.733°E / 25.133; 121.733Coordinates: 25°08′N 121°44′E / 25.133°N 121.733°E / 25.133; 121.733
Country  Taiwan
Region Northern Taiwan
Districts 7
City seat Zhongzheng District
Government
 • Mayor Chang Tong-rong
 • Deputy Mayor Ke Shuei-yuan
Area
 • Total 132.7589 km2 (51.2585 sq mi)
Area rank 18 of 22
Population (June 2014)
 • Total 373,786
 • Rank 16 of 22
 • Density 2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone CST (UTC+8)
Postal code 200-206
Area code(s) (0)32
- Bird Eagle
- Flower Common crepe myrtle
- Tree Formosan Sweet-gum
English Keelung/KLC
Chinese 基隆/基市
Website www.klcg.gov.tw

Keelung, officially known as Keelung City (Chinese: 基隆市; pinyin: Jīlóng Shì; Wade–Giles: Chilung Shi) (also Jilong or Chilung), is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei with which it forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, along with Taipei itself. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain and maritime role, the city is Taiwan's second largest seaport (after Kaohsiung).

Name[edit]

Keelung City
Chinese
Taiwanese Hokkien Name
Traditional Chinese 雞籠市

The city of Keelung was known as Kelung or Keelung to the Western world during the 19th century.[1][2] However, the Taiwanese people have long called the city Kelang (Chinese: 雞籠; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ke-lâng; literally: "rooster cage or hencoop"[3]).

It has been proposed that the name Keelung was derived from the local mountain that took the shape of a rooster cage. However, it is more probable that the name was derived from the first inhabitants of the region, as are the names of many other Taiwanese cities. In this case, the Ketagalan people were the first inhabitants, and early Han settlers probably approximated "Ketagalan" with "Ke-lâng" (phonetics of the Southern Min Language).

In 1875, during Qing Dynasty rule, the Chinese characters of the name were changed to the more auspicious 基隆 (pinyin: Jīlóng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ki-liông; literally: "base prosperous").[4] In Mandarin, probably the working language of Chinese government at the time, both the old and new names were likely pronounced Kīlóng (hence "Keelung"). Under Japanese rule (1895–1945), the city was known to the west by Japanese readings of the new name: Kirun, Kiirun or Kīrun. In Modern Standard Chinese, the official language of the Republic of China, the new name is read Jīlóng, although the locals have continued to call the city Ke-lâng throughout changes in government.

History[edit]

Map of Keelung in 1956.

Keelung was first inhabited by the Ketagalan, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigine. Its first contact with the west was with the Spanish in the early 17th century, who built a fort in Keelung as an outpost of the Manila-based Spanish East Indies. From 1642 to 1661 and 1663–1668, Keelung was under Dutch control.[5][6] The Dutch East India Company took over the Spanish Fort San Salvador at Santissima Trinidad. They reduced its size and renamed it Fort Noort-Hollant.[6] The Dutch had three more minor fortifications in Keelung and also a little school and a preacher.

Ming Dynasty[edit]

When Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga successfully attacked the Dutch in the South of Taiwan, the crew of the Keelung forts fled to the Dutch trading post in Japan. The Dutch came back in 1663 and re-occupied and strengthened their earlier forts. However, trade with China through Keelung was not what they hoped it would be and, in 1668, they left voluntarily.

Qing Dynasty[edit]

In 1863, following the First Opium War (1839–1842) between British Empire and China, the Qing Empire opened up Keelung as a trading port and the city enjoyed rapid development due to the abundant commodities such as placer gold and high quality coal found in the drainage area of Keelung River. In 1875, the court of Qing Dynasty changed the old Jilong name to Keelung which means rich and prosperous land.[7]

The Keelung Campaign was an important subsidiary campaign in the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung from 1 October 1884 to 22 June 1885, and several battles were fought during this period between Liu Mingchuan's Army of Northern Formosa and Colonel Jacques Duchesne's Formosa Expeditionary Corps.

Empire of Japan[edit]

A systematic city development started during the Japanese Era, after 8 May 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which handed all Taiwan over to Japan, went into force. A five-phase construction of Keelung Harbor was initiated, and in by 1916 trade volume had exceeded even those of Tamsui and Kaohsiung Harbors to become one of the major commercial harbors of Taiwan.[8]

Keelung became a town in Keelung District, Taipei Prefecture in 1920 and was upgraded to a city of Taipei Prefecture in 1924.[8] The Pacific War broke out in 1941, and Keelung became one of the first targets of Allied bombers and was nearly destroyed as a result.[8]

Republic of China[edit]

After the handover of Taiwan to China from Japan in October 1945, Keelung was established as a provincial city of Taiwan Province. The Keelung City Government then worked hard to rebuild the city and the harbor and in 1984, the harbor became the 7th largest container harbor in the world.[9]

Geography[edit]

Keelung City is located in the northern part of Taiwan Island. It occupies an area of 132.76 km2 and is separated from its neighboring county by mountains in the east, west and south. The northern part of the city faces the ocean and is a great deep water harbor since early times.[10]

Climate[edit]

Keelung has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is particularly noted for its high rainfall year-round, with an average of upwards of 3,700 millimetres (146 in), it is one of the wettest cities in the world,[11] contributing to its nickname of "Rain Port" (雨港). Although it is one of the coldest cities of Taiwan, winters are still short and mild, whilst summers are long and hot, temperatures can peek above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while it can dip below 27 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer day, much like the rest of northern Taiwan. However its location on northern mountain slopes means that due to orographic lift, rainfall is heavier during fall and winter, the latter during which a northeasterly flow prevails. During summer, southwesterly winds dominate and thus there is a slight rain shadow effect. Fog is most serious during winter and spring, when relative humidity levels are also highest.

Climate data for Keelung (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
18.8
(65.8)
20.8
(69.4)
24.4
(75.9)
27.7
(81.9)
30.7
(87.3)
33.0
(91.4)
32.3
(90.1)
29.6
(85.3)
26.2
(79.2)
23.3
(73.9)
19.9
(67.8)
25.42
(77.74)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.2
(61.2)
17.9
(64.2)
21.3
(70.3)
24.5
(76.1)
27.3
(81.1)
29.3
(84.7)
28.9
(84)
27.0
(80.6)
24.1
(75.4)
21.2
(70.2)
17.7
(63.9)
22.62
(72.71)
Average low °C (°F) 13.9
(57)
14.2
(57.6)
15.5
(59.9)
18.8
(65.8)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
24.7
(76.5)
22.2
(72)
19.2
(66.6)
15.7
(60.3)
20.28
(68.52)
Rainfall mm (inches) 335.8
(13.22)
399.1
(15.713)
332.3
(13.083)
240.9
(9.484)
296.1
(11.657)
286.7
(11.287)
150.4
(5.921)
212.8
(8.378)
360.8
(14.205)
413.4
(16.276)
394.7
(15.539)
332.1
(13.075)
3,755.1
(147.838)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 21.0 19.6 21.1 17.2 18.8 14.2 9.2 11.5 15.0 17.7 19.9 20.1 205.3
 % humidity 81.2 82.5 83.6 81.6 81.7 79.6 75.1 76.7 78.6 79.2 79.0 78.5 79.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.5 48.0 65.6 83.4 90.3 125.4 203.0 192.5 149.1 94.3 58.7 52.6 1,217.4
Source: [12]

Administration[edit]

Keelung City Hall in Zhongzheng District

Zhongzheng District is the seat of Keelung City which houses the Keelung City Government and Keelung City Council. The current Mayor of Keelung is Chang Tong-rong of the Kuomintang.

Keelung has seven districts (區 Qu): District Population Land area
Districts of Keelung-Taiwan.png as of 2014 km²
Zhongzheng 中正區 53,519 10.2118
Zhongshan 中山區 49,222 10.5238
Ren'ai 仁愛區 47,021 4.2335
Xinyi 信義區 51,230 10.6706
Anle 安樂區 81,897 18.0250
Nuannuan 暖暖區 37,909 22.8283
Qidu 七堵區 54,001 56.2659

Demographics and culture[edit]

Population growth[edit]

Year Population Notes
1840
700 Households
1897
9,500
1924
58,000
1943
100,000
1944
92,000
Decrease due to Allied air bombings
1948
130,000
28,000 Mainlander influx
1971
330,000
late 1990s
347,828
2010
387,207

Festivals[edit]

One of the most popular festivals in Taiwan is the Mid-Summer Ghost Festival. The Keelung Ghost Festival is among the oldest in Taiwan, dating back to 1851 after bitter clashes between rivaling clans, which claimed many lives before mediators stepped in. The Ghost Festival of Keelung City is a reflection of Taiwan's rich cultural history that is very much alive today.[13]

Economy[edit]

Coal mining peaked in 1968. The city developed quickly and by 1984, the harbor was the 7th largest container harbor in the world.[14]

Panorama view of Central Keelung and harbor area.


Education[edit]

Education in Keelung City is governed by the Department of Education of Keelung City Government.

Universities and colleges[edit]

Keelung City houses several universities and colleges, such as the National Taiwan Ocean University, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health and Chungyu Institute of Technology.

Energy[edit]

Keelung City houses the only fully oil-fired power plant in Taiwan, the Hsieh-ho Power Plant, which is located in Zhongshan District. The installed capacity of the power plant is 2,000 MW.

Tourist attractions[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Taiwan Railways Administration stations of Badu Station, Baifu Station, Keelung Station, Nuannuan Station, Qidu Station and Sankeng Station cross Keelung City.

Water[edit]

Taiwan's second largest port, the Port of Keelung, is located in the city. The port serves for destinations to Matsu Islands, Xiamen and Okinawa.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Keelung is twinned with:

People from Keelung[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, D. Warres (1900). European settlements in the Far East: China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands, India, Borneo, the Philippines, etc.. S. Low, Marston & company. p. 38. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  2. ^ Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 775. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  3. ^ "Welcome to Keelung City: The Beginning". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  4. ^ "Ching Dynasty". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  5. ^ Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  6. ^ a b "Ming Dynasty and Cheng Cheng kung's Era". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  7. ^ http://www.klcg.gov.tw/en/01/01_2_3.jsp
  8. ^ a b c "Japanese Occupation". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  9. ^ http://www.klcg.gov.tw/en/01/01_2_5.jsp
  10. ^ http://www.klcg.gov.tw/en/01/01_1.jsp
  11. ^ http://www.graphnickdesign.com/demo/sistercities/keelung-taiwan/
  12. ^ "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau. 
  13. ^ "Keelung: Mid-summer ghost festival". Dream Life. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  14. ^ "The Republic of China". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 

External links[edit]