Clockwise from top: Keelung's Skyline, Zhongzheng Park, Zhongzheng & Daye Tunnel, Rocks at the coast of Keelung, and Port of Keelung
|Nickname(s): The Rainy Port (雨港)|
|City seat||Zhongzheng District|
|• Mayor||Chang Tong-rong|
|• Deputy Mayor||Ke Shuei-yuan|
|• Total||132.7589 km2 (51.2585 sq mi)|
|Area rank||21 of 25|
|Population (January 2014)|
|• Rank||19 of 25|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC+8)|
|- Flower||Common crepe myrtle|
|- Tree||Formosan Sweet-gum|
Keelung, officially known as Keelung City (Chinese: 基隆市; pinyin: Jīlóng Shì; Wade–Giles: Chilung Shi) (also Jilong or Chilung), is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei with which it forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, along with Taipei itself. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain and maritime role, the city is Taiwan's second largest seaport (after Kaohsiung).
|Taiwanese Hokkien Name|
The city of Keelung was known as Kelung or Keelung to the Western world during the 19th century. However, the Taiwanese people have long called the city Kelang (Chinese: 雞籠; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ke-lâng; literally: "rooster cage or hencoop").
It has been proposed that the name Keelung was derived from the local mountain that took the shape of a rooster cage. However, it is more probable that the name was derived from the first inhabitants of the region, as are the names of many other Taiwanese cities. In this case, the Ketagalan people were the first inhabitants, and early Han settlers probably approximated "Ketagalan" with "Ke-lâng" (phonetics of the Southern Min Language).
In 1875, during Qing Dynasty rule, the Chinese characters of the name were changed to the more auspicious 基隆 (pinyin: Jīlóng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ki-liông; literally: "base prosperous"). In Mandarin, probably the working language of Chinese government at the time, both the old and new names were likely pronounced Kīlóng (hence "Keelung"). Under Japanese rule (1895–1945), the city was known to the west by Japanese readings of the new name: Kirun, Kiirun or Kīrun. In Modern Standard Chinese, the official language of the Republic of China, the new name is read Jīlóng, although the locals have continued to call the city Ke-lâng throughout changes in government.
Keelung was first inhabited by the Ketagalan, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigine. Its first contact with the west was with the Spanish in the early 17th century, who built a fort in Keelung as an outpost of the Manila-based Spanish East Indies. From 1642 to 1661 and 1663–1668, Keelung was under Dutch control. The Dutch East India Company took over the Spanish Fort San Salvador at Santissima Trinidad. They reduced its size and renamed it Fort Noort-Hollant. The Dutch had three more minor fortifications in Keelung and also a little school and a preacher. When Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) successfully attacked the Dutch in the South of Taiwan, the crew of the Keelung forts fled to the Dutch trading post in Japan. The Dutch came back in 1663 and re-occupied and strengthened their earlier forts. However, trade with China through Keelung was not what they hoped it would be and, in 1668, they left voluntarily.
The Keelung Campaign was an important subsidiary campaign in the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). The French occupied Keelung from 1 October 1884 to 22 June 1885, and several battles were fought during this period between Liu Mingchuan's Army of Northern Formosa and Colonel Jacques Duchesne's Formosa Expeditionary Corps.
A systematic city development started during the Japanese Era, after 8 May 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which handed all Taiwan over to Japan, went into force. A five-phase construction of Keelung Harbor was initiated, and in by 1916 trade volume had exceeded even those of Tamsui and Kaohsiung Harbors to become one of the major commercial harbors of Taiwan.
Keelung became a town in Keelung District, Taipei Prefecture in 1920 and was upgraded to a city of Taipei Prefecture in 1924. The Pacific War broke out in 1941, and Keelung became one of the first targets of Allied bombers and was nearly destroyed as a result.
A view of the Port of Keelung
Keelung has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is particularly noted for its high rainfall year-round, with an average of upwards of 3,700 millimetres (146 in), it is one of the wettest cities in the world, contributing to its nickname of "Rain Port" (雨港). Although it is one of the coldest cities of Taiwan, winters are still short and mild, whilst summers are long and hot, temperatures can peek above 26 degrees Celsius during a warm winter day, while it can dip below 27 degrees Celsius during a rainy summer day, much like the rest of northern Taiwan. However its location on northern mountain slopes means that due to orographic lift, rainfall is heavier during fall and winter, the latter during which a northeasterly flow prevails. During summer, southwesterly winds dominate and thus there is a slight rain shadow effect. Fog is most serious during winter and spring, when relative humidity levels are also highest.
|Climate data for Keelung (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.0
|Average low °C (°F)||13.9
|Rainfall mm (inches)||335.8
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||21.0||19.6||21.1||17.2||18.8||14.2||9.2||11.5||15.0||17.7||19.9||20.1||205.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.5||48.0||65.6||83.4||90.3||125.4||203.0||192.5||149.1||94.3||58.7||52.6||1,217.4|
One of the most popular festivals in Taiwan is the Mid-Summer Ghost Festival. The Keelung Ghost Festival is among the oldest in Taiwan, dating back to 1851 after bitter clashes between rivaling clans, which claimed many lives before mediators stepped in. The Ghost Festival of Keelung City is a reflection of Taiwan's rich cultural history that is very much alive today.
|Keelung has seven districts (區 Qu):||District||Population||Land area|
|as of 2014||km²|
||Decrease due to Allied air bombings|
||28,000 Mainlander influx|
Twin towns — Sister cities
Keelung is twinned with:
- Bacolod, Philippines
- Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands
- Campbell, USA
- Corpus Christi, USA
- Davao City, Philippines
- East London, South Africa
- Marrickville, Australia
- Miyakojima, Japan
- Rosemead, USA
- Salt Lake City, USA
- Thunder Bay, Canada
- Yakima, USA
People from Keelung
- Chen Ti, Taiwanese tennis player
- Zero Chou, Taiwanese director
- Jiang Yi-huah, Premier of the Republic of China
- Show Luo, Taiwanese Entertainer
- Danson Tang, Taiwanese Mandopop singer
- Yi Huan, Taiwanese comic creator/animator
- Feng-hsuing Hsu, American-Taiwanese computer scientist
- Hsie Zhen-Wu, Taiwanese TV Presenter/Lawyer
- Port of Keelung
- Taipei City
- New Taipei City
- List of cities in the Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
- Smith, D. Warres (1900). European settlements in the Far East: China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands, India, Borneo, the Philippines, etc.. S. Low, Marston & company. p. 38. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 775. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Welcome to Keelung City: The Beginning". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Ching Dynasty". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "Ming Dynasty and Cheng Cheng kung's Era". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "Japanese Occupation". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "The Republic of China". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau.
- "Keelung: Mid-summer ghost festival". Dream Life. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
|Find more about Keelung at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Keelung travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Keelung City Government official website (English)
- Keelung Harbor Bureau official website (English)
- WorldStatesmen.org — Taiwan