Keldysh formalism

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In condensed matter physics, the Keldysh formalism is a general framework for describing the quantum mechanical evolution of a system in a non-equilibrium state, e.g. in the presence of time varying fields (electrical field, magnetic field etc.). The main mathematical object in the Keldysh formalism is the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF).

Kubo–Keldysh formalism[edit]

Schwinger–Keldysh formalism[edit]

Landauer–Büttiker–Keldysh formalism[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. Introduction to the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green Function Technique (pdf) By A. P. Jauho
  2. Application of the Keldysh Formalism to Quantum Device Modeling and Analysis (pdf) By Roger Lake