Kelsang Gyatso

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Geshe Kelsang Gyatso is a Buddhist monk, "meditation master, scholar, and author"[1] of 22 books based on the teachings of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. He is the founder and former spiritual director of the New Kadampa Tradition-International Kadampa Buddhist Union (NKT-IKBU), a Western Buddhist order based primarily on the teachings of the Gelugpa tradition, albeit "not subordinate to Tibetan authorities other than Geshe Gyatso himself."[2] The NKT-IKBU has grown to become a global Buddhist organisation that currently lists more than 200 centres and around 900 branch classes/study groups in 40 countries.[3]


Kelsang Gyatso was born in Tibet in 1931 and ordained at the age of eight. After leaving Tibet, he spent eighteen years in retreat in the Himalayas in India.[4] In 1976 he was invited by Lama Thubten Yeshe via their spiritual guide, Trijang Rinpoche, to become the resident teacher at the main FPMT center, Manjushri Institute in Ulverston, Cumbria in England.[5] Following a three-year retreat in Tharpaland, Dumfries, he founded the NKT-IKBU in 1991. He retired as General Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU in August 2009 but continues to write books and practice materials.

Life and education in Tibet[edit]

Kelsang Gyatso was born on Dharmachakra Day (the 4th day of the 6th month of the Tibetan lunar calendar) 1931 in Yangcho Tang, eastern Tibet. His lay name was Lobsang Chuponpa. His ordination name "Kelsang Gyatso" means "Ocean of Good Fortune". His mother made great sacrifices to enable her son to attend the Ngamring Jampa Ling Monastery because he showed interest and aptitude from an early age. He joined the monastery when he was 8 years old and later described memorizing the Medicine Buddha Sutra:

In my first monastery, Jampa Ling, this was the principal practice. The Tibetan translation of the Sutra is about fifty pages long. I memorized this together with some additional prayers, because this was one of the commitments for being able to stay in the monastery.[6]

(In November 1986, Kelsang Gyatso oversaw the rebuilding of Ngamring Jampa Ling Monastery after its destruction, and it was fully restored and reopened by September 1988.[7])

According to Cozort, Kelsang Gyatso is "a highly trained geshe."[8] After studying on the Geshe training program at Jampaling, Kelsang Gyatso passed two examinations at Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, and received his Geshe degree[citation needed]. Later Kelsang Gyatso continued his studies at Sera Monastery near Lhasa,[9][10] one of the great Gelug monastic universities of Tibet. At Sera Je, he successfully completed the full Geshe studies of five large philosophical texts. He was a member of the Tsangpa Khangtsen, one of the fifteen houses at Sera Je monastery. Contemporaries at Sera Je included Geshe Lhundub Sopa, Geshe Rabten, and Lama Thubten Yeshe.

Waterhouse cites three reasons, traditional in Tibetan Buddhism, why Kelsang Gyatso is authorized to be a Spiritual Guide, saying "The combination of experience, lineage and knowledge makes Geshe Kelsang ideal as a teacher. He has the credibility of a genuine Tibetan teacher and the vision to instigate an organization (the New Kadampa Tradition) to present that teaching to westerners."[11][12]

Spiritual guide[edit]

Kelsang Gyatso's "Spiritual Father" was the great Gelugpa Master the third Trijang Rinpoche, Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (1900–1981 CE),[13] who was also the "root guru" of the current Dalai Lama.[14][15] He describes his root Guru as "a vast reservoir from which all Gelugpa practitioners of the present day received 'waters' of blessings and instructions."[16] Trijang Rinpoche was also the Junior Tutor and Spiritual Guide of the 14th Dalai Lama for fifty years.

Kelsang Gyatso has repeatedly talked about his complete indebtedness to and reliance upon his Spiritual Guide, describing him as more important than his life.[17]

In 1978 Trijang Rinpoche wrote a prayer for Kelsang Gyatso's long life that is regularly recited at New Kadampa Tradition Centres.

Leaving Tibet and life in India[edit]

After the exodus from Tibet in 1959, Kelsang Gyatso escaped to India through Nepal and stayed at the initial location of his monastery, in Buxar. All he took with him were two Buddhist scriptures — Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life and a text by Je Tsongkhapa. Later, after Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru donated large tracts of land in South India to the community in exile, the monastery moved south. At this time, Kelsang Gyatso left the monastery at Buxar for Mussoorie (a hill station in the Indian state of Uttarakhand) where he taught and engaged in intensive meditation retreat for 18 years.[18]

Journey to the West[edit]

Even before coming to the West, Kelsang Gyatso was "by all accounts, a very well respected scholar and meditator" within the Tibetan exile community.[19] Since then, "this diminutive and unassuming Tibetan has won the hearts and minds of people from all cultures and walks of life."[20][21]

Kay remarks that Lama Yeshe's decision to invite his former classmate[22] to be Resident Teacher at the FPMT's Manjushri Institute in England was advised by the Dalai Lama.[23] The invitation was extended by Trijang Rinpoche, the root Guru of Kelsang Gyatso.[24] He arrived in August 1977 and gave his first teaching on Lamrim on September 10.[25] Kelsang Gyatso later recounted that Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche asked him to go to England, teach Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way and Lamrim, and then “check whether there was any meaning in his continuing to stay."

In Kelsang Gyatso's own words:

When I was in India I received an invitation from Manjushri Institute in England through Lama Yeshe, who was my very close friend in Tibet. He and I were from the same monastery in Tibet and we had the same Teacher. He wrote to me and requested me please to go to England and give Dharma teachings. I received this invitation but I didn’t answer for two months. At that time it was difficult for me to say yes due to certain commitments to local Tibetan people, and also I thought how could I teach as I could not speak English? I had no confidence. Lama Yeshe was very clever; he went to visit my root Guru Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche, and requested him to ask me to go to England to teach Dharma. He knew if my root Guru asked me, then I would agree to go.[citation needed]

Under Kelsang Gyatso's spiritual direction, Manjushri Institute "became a thriving training and retreat center."[26] Kelsang Gyatso taught the General Program at Manjushri from 1977 to 1987.[27] At that time, the Geshe studies programme was taught by Geshe Jampa Tekchok and then Geshe Konchog Tsewang (1982–1990). (In 1990 the Geshe Studies Programme at Manjushri Institute was cancelled, as it had been in most of the other FPMT Centres where it had been established.[28])

On October 13, 1983, Kelsang Gyatso became a naturalized British citizen: “I became a subject of the British Queen”.[29]

Establishing Buddhist centres[edit]

In 1979, Kelsang Gyatso opened a Dharma Center (Madhyamaka Centre in Yorkshire) under his own spiritual direction and apparently without FPMT approval.[30] David Kay explained how many Geshes who happened to teach at FPMT Centers in the early years still considered themselves to be autonomous entities: "Not all of the geshes shared Lama Yeshe's vision of Gelug Buddhism in the West or understood themselves to be part of it."[31]

Robert Bluck explained that as a consequence of opening Madhayamaka Centre, Lama Yeshe asked for Kelsang Gyatso's resignation, "but his students petitioned him to remain, and a struggle ensued for control of Manjushri Institute, which eventually withdrew from the FPMT."[32] Although some FPMT students regarded Kelsang Gyatso as a "rogue geshe" as a result of his separation from the FPMT, Bluck suggests an alternative view: "FPMT teachers became increasingly remote, with Kelsang Gyatso's single-minded approach and personal example inspiring many students."[33]

Creation of the NKT-IKBU[edit]

In 1987, Kelsang Gyatso entered a 3-year retreat at Tharpaland International Retreat Centre in Dumfries, Scotland. During his retreat, he wrote five books and established the foundations of the NKT-IKBU.[34] After completing his retreat in the early months of 1991, Kelsang Gyatso announced the creation of the NKT-IKBU, an event which was celebrated by his students in the NKT-IKBU magazine Full Moon as "a wonderful development in the history of the Buddhadharma."[35] Since that time, the NKT-IKBU has grown to comprise over 1100 Centres and groups throughout 40 countries.[36]

Teachings[edit]

Kelsang Gyatso is a prolific writer[37] and teacher of Buddhadharma in general, in particular the teachings of Je Tsongkhapa. He has taught extensively on all aspects of Buddha's Sutras and Tantras both in regular courses for the first ten years at Manjushri Institute and then in International Festivals two or three times a year. His teachings draw on the original texts of Buddha Shakyamuni and a number of Indian and Tibetan teachers and commentators. They also draw on his own meditative experience acquired in his long 1959–1976 retreat.

Talking about his training at the monasteries, he explains that it mainly emphasized intellectual debate, and that he would therefore stay up all night to meditate on Lamrim (stages of the path), Lojong (training the mind) and Mahamudra in the meditative tradition of Je Tsongkhapa. His teachings reflect this emphasis on practical teachings based on Lamrim, Lojong and Mahamudra. When he established the NKT-IKBU study programs he said:

I wanted to encourage people to practice purely. Just having a lot of Dharma knowledge, studying a lot intellectually but not practicing, is a serious problem. This was my experience in Tibet. Intellectual knowledge alone does not give peace.[38]

Kelsang Gyatso explained how he received his Guru Trijang Rinpoche's permission to present Dharma in a more practical way suitable to Westerners.[39] Waterhouse commented that "He teaches in English with a strong Tibetan accent. He is an endearing character to look at; petite with slightly downcast eyes which look about him as he walks or teaches his devoted students."[40] Spanswick observes that "many of those who hear him speak are struck by his wisdom and sincerity."[41]

Books[edit]

At the heart of the NKT-IKBU are its three study programs: the General Program, the Foundation Program, and the Teacher Training Program.[42] In these programs people can study Kelsang Gyatso's books with authorized NKT-IKBU Dharma teachers.

According to the NKT-IKBU, it "seeks not to offer a westernized form of Buddhism, but rather to make traditional Gelugpa Buddhism accessible to westerners."[43] To achieve this, Kelsang Gyatso taught himself English[44] and wrote 22 books that aim to provide Western Dharma practitioners with essential Buddhist texts. His first book published in 1980 was a commentary to Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life called Meaningful to Behold. This was followed by Clear Light of Bliss in 1982. His books were first published by Wisdom Publications. In 1985, Tharpa Publications was founded, which since has been the exclusive publisher of his works worldwide.

A number of Kelsang Gyatso's textbooks have received favourable reviews.[45] Bluck writes that "The three most popular works—Introduction to Buddhism, The New Meditation Handbook and Transform Your Life—have sold 165,000 copies between them, showing their appeal far beyond the movement itself."[46] Batchelor says that Kelsang Gyatso's books are written with "considerable clarity."[47] Braizer echoes this sentiment, saying that Kelsang Gyatso writes "excellent" books that are "an important contribution to Western understanding of Buddhism and its traditions. They can stand on their own merit."[48] Guide to Dakini Land and Essence of Vajrayana have been described as "the most detailed and revealing commentary on specific tantric practices yet to be published in a Western language."[49] In his book review of Guide to Dakini Land, Richard Guard said:

It is remarkable that the author has managed to give us so much information in only a few hundred pages. The editors are to be commended for their skilful efforts in conveying Kelsang Gyatso’s instructions in such simple and precise language... By making this book available for Vajrayogini practitioners, Kelsang Gyatso has truly brought a blessing into our lives.[50]

Kelsang Gyatso regards all his books as "coming from Je Tsongkhapa, with himself as being like a cassette recorder into which the Wisdom Buddha, the Dharma Protector Dorje Shugden, has placed the cassette of Je Tsongkhapa's teachings." And in the preface of one of his books, Kelsang Gyatso states:

I have received these teachings from my Spiritual Guide, Trijang Dorjechang, who was an emanation of Atisha; thus the explanations given in this book, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, actually come from him and not from myself.[citation needed]

Biography Research Guide describes Kelsang Gyatso's books:

A Tibetan Buddhist monk and scholar; Geshe Kelsang has written twenty books that aim to provide Western Dharma practitioners with essential Buddhist texts; some are books for beginners such as Transform Your Life and How to Solve Our Human Problems, books about the Mahayana path like Universal Compassion (Lojong), and books on Vajrayana (Tantra) like Mahamudra Tantra; (born 1931, in Tibet).[51]

Over a million copies of Kelsang Gyatso's books have been sold,[52] and "their popularity is increasing as more people become interested in the teaching of Buddhism."[53] His books include titles for beginners such as Introduction to Buddhism, Transform Your Life and How to Solve Our Human Problems, books about the Mahayana path like Universal Compassion (Lojong), The New Heart of Wisdom (Heart Sutra) and Joyful Path of Good Fortune (Lamrim), and books on Vajrayana (Tantra) like Mahamudra Tantra, Guide to Dakini Land and Essence of Vajrayana. Two of his books are commentaries on Indian Mahayana texts: the book Ocean of Nectar is a commentary to Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way, and Meaningful to Behold is a commentary to Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life or Bodhicharyavatara.

The books are also highly thought of within the Tibetan establishment. Three of his published works contained forewords by previous Ganden Tripas and the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama contributed a foreword to Buddhism in the Tibetan Tradition, while Trijang Rinpoche and Ling Rinpoche (who each held the position of Ganden Tripa) also provided forewords for his books Meaningful to Behold (which was dedicated to the long life of the Dalai Lama) and Clear Light of Bliss (which was dedicated to the late Trijang Rinpoche), respectively. Kyabje Ling Rinpoche refers to Kelsang Gyatso as "this most precious Spiritual Guide," while Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche refers to him as "The excellent expounder, the great Spiritual Master Kelsang Gyatso." Tsem Tulku praised Kelsang Gyatso and his publications: "The great master, the Kadampa Geshe, Kelsang Gyatso, you can see very clearly his works, his centers, his books, his pure vows, and how many thousands of people he affects."[54]

The books are being translated into many other languages.[55] Kelsang Gyatso has also translated and/or composed many sadhanas, or prayer booklets, for the practice of many of the Buddhist Tantras.

Emphasis on lineage[edit]

Kay says that NKT-IKBU practitioners practice their tradition exclusively, "eschewing eclecticism."[56] Kelsang Gyatso's "conservative and traditional presentation of Buddhism" is appealing to Westerners who "wish for a meaningful alternative to spiritual pluralism."[57] According to Kelsang Gyatso in Understanding the Mind:

Every Teacher and every tradition has a slightly different approach and employs different methods. The practices taught by one Teacher will differ from those taught by another, and if we try to combine them we shall become confused, develop doubts, and lose direction. If we try to create a synthesis of different traditions we shall destroy the special power of each and be left only with a mishmash of our own making that will be a source of confusion and doubt.[58]

Therefore, Kelsang Gyatso has taught in Great Treasury of Merit that the most effective way to progress spiritually is by "following one tradition purely — relying upon one Teacher, practising only his teachings, and following his Dharma Protector. If we mix traditions many obstacles arise and it takes a long time for us to attain realizations."[59]

The lineage Kelsang Gyatso follows is that taught to him by Trijang Rinpoche, his root Guru, and in turn by Pabongka Rinpoche, the root Guru of Trijang Rinpoche. One of Kelsang Gyatso's teachers, the highly respected Lharampa Geshe Zong Rinpoche, affirms Kelsang Gyatso's view on the importance of lineage:

Kyabje Phabongka passed all of his lineages to Kyabje Trijang Dorje Chang. He often said this in discourses. The purpose of this detailed exposition is to affirm the power of the lineage. If we lose faith in the lineage, we are lost. We should remember the biographies of past and present teachers. We should never develop negative thoughts towards our root and lineage gurus. If we do not keep the commitments after having received teachings, this is a great downfall.[60][page needed]

Ordination of Westerners[edit]

There are currently 700 monks and nuns within the New Kadampa Tradition, all ordained by Kelsang Gyatso. Kelsang Gyatso says:

Western people are well educated; they do not have blind faith but immediately question and try to understand the truth. I cannot pretend with you. We cannot be like a fully ordained monk who has taken 253 vows, but who is not even keeping one. We should never do like this; we need to do everything correctly and purely. The Kadampa ordination solves all these problems. Practically speaking, all the 253 vows explained in the Vinaya Sutra are included within the ten commitments.[61]

That is to say, the vows of those ordained within the New Kadampa Tradition do not enumerate the multitude of details specified by the Indian and Tibetan Vinaya traditions. Rather, the vows follow a pragmatic approach in which the ten global commitments held by Vinaya novices constitute full ordination.

The vows held by monks and nuns within the New Kadampa Tradition are as follows:

Throughout my life I will abandon killing, stealing, lying or cheating, sexual activity, taking intoxicants and engaging in meaningless activities.

I will practice contentment, reduce my desire for worldly pleasures, maintain the commitments of refuge, and practice the three trainings of moral discipline, concentration and wisdom.[62]

Development of Western Dharma teachers[edit]

Kelsang Gyatso founded the New Kadampa Tradition "to bring pure Buddhist teachings to the west,"[63] where he would train equally four types of teacher: monks, nuns, lay men and lay women.[64] NKT-IKBU Dharma Centres are mixed communities of lay and ordained practitioners who are all on the same teaching programs. He also promotes the development of local teachers in their own language.[65] This is a departure from most Tibetan Buddhist Centres where monastics take precedence over lay people, monks take precedence over nuns, and Tibetans take precedence over Westerners.

In a teaching called Training as a Qualified Dharma Teacher, Kelsang Gyatso explained where the teachers of the NKT-IKBU come from:

We need qualified Teachers. The New Kadampa Tradition cannot buy qualified Teachers, nor can we invite them from outside. We need Teachers who can teach the twelve texts that we have chosen as our objects of study in the Teacher Training Programme and the Foundation Programme. Other Teachers cannot teach these books because they have not studied them and they do not have the transmissions. Therefore, qualified Teachers within the

New Kadampa Tradition can come only from our own students.[66]

Retirement[edit]

Although he is in good health, in August 2009 he voluntarily stepped down as General Spiritual Director of the NKT-IKBU, in a democratic system of succession that he established in the NKT-IKBU's Internal Rules.[67]

Kelsang Gyatso engages in meditation retreat and continues to write Dharma books and to help to preserve and promote the Kadampa Buddhism of Je Tsongkhapa in accordance with the instructions of Trijang Rinpoche.[68] According to Richard Spanswick, "Since taking up residence at Conishead Priory, Geshe Kelsang has been working to produce a complete set of instructions for westerners wishing to set out on the path to enlightenment."[69] Continuing this task, a new book entitled Modern Buddhism: The Path of Wisdom and Compassion is slated for release in 2010, and its oral transmission will be given by Kelsang Gyatso at the Fall 2010 NKT-IKBU Festival.[70]

Bibliography[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, Jean (1999). Radiant Mind: Essential Buddhist Teachings and Texts. New York: Riverhead Books. p. 324.
  2. ^ Cozort, Daniel (2003). The Making of the Western Lama. Quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the Modern World: Adaptations of an Ancient Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 231.
  3. ^ number of centres as of 8/29/2009, retrieved from map.kadampa.org: 3 International Retreat Centres (IRC), 19 Kadampa Meditation Centres (KMC), 196 Kadampa Buddhist Centres (KBC), there may be even some more centres that have not been placed on the map yet, listed here: kadampa.org/en/centers
  4. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 230.
  5. ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 129.
  6. ^ Commentary to Medicine Buddha Sadhana, February 3, 1996, Santa Barbara, California
  7. ^ Full Moon Magazine 1991
  8. ^ Cozort, Daniel (2003). The Making of the Western Lama. Quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the Modern World: Adaptations of an Ancient Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 240.
  9. ^ Houghton Mifflin Company. (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 661.
  10. ^ The Riverside Dictionary of Biography (2005). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 346.
  11. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Buddhism in Bath: Adaptation and Authority. University of Leeds, Department of Theology and Religious Studies. pp. 181-182.
  12. ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 141.
  13. ^ Kelsang Gyatso. (2000). Eight Steps to Happiness: The Buddhist way of loving kindness. London: Tharpa Publications. p. 16.
  14. ^ Dalai Lama, Union of Bliss and Emptiness, p. 26
  15. ^ Dalai Lama, The Gelug/Kagyü tradition of Mahamudra. Ithaca, N.Y.: Snow Lion Publications (1997), p. 170.
  16. ^ Belither, James. Modern Day Kadampas: The History and Development of the New Kadampa Tradition. retrieved 2009-03-12.
  17. ^ Interview in San Francisco 1998
  18. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University . p. 230.
  19. ^ Kay, David (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 56.
  20. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (6:24-6:36)
  21. ^ See also Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Buddhism in Bath: Adaptation and Authority. University of Leeds, Department of Theology and Religious Studies. p. 171.
  22. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Buddhism in Bath: Adaptation and Authority. University of Leeds, Department of Theology and Religious Studies. p. 136.
  23. ^ Kay, David (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, Development and Adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 56.
  24. ^ Bluck, R. (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, practice and development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 129.
  25. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 225, 230.
  26. ^ Cresswell, Jamie. "Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition" entry in Melton, J. Gordon, and Martin Baumann. 2002. Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. p. 508.
  27. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. pp. 56, 73.
  28. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 226.
  29. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 230.
  30. ^ Bluck, R. (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, practice and development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 130.
  31. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-29765-6. p. 65.
  32. ^ Bluck, R. (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, practice and development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 130.
  33. ^ Bluck, R. (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, practice and development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. pp. 132-133.
  34. ^ Bluck, R. (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, practice and development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 130.
  35. ^ Kay, D. N. (2004). Tibetan and Zen Buddhism in Britain: Transplantation, development and adaptation. RoutledgeCurzon critical studies in Buddhism. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 78.
  36. ^ Kadampa Centers. NKT-IKBU official website. retrieved 2008-12-07.
  37. ^ Chryssides, George (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Cassell. p. 235.
  38. ^ From Interview with Geshe Kelsang Gyatso by Donald S. Lopez, Jr. Tricycle Magazine, Spring 1998, Vol. 7 No. 3. p. 74.
  39. ^ A Presentation of Dharma for the Modern World "http://newkadampatradition.wordpress.com/2009/02/19/a-presentation-of-dharma-for-the-modern-world/"
  40. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (1997). Buddhism in Bath: Adaptation and Authority. University of Leeds, Department of Theology and Religious Studies. p. 137.
  41. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (8:32-8:56)
  42. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 232.
  43. ^ Partridge, C. H. (2004). New religions: A guide : new religious movements, sects, and alternative spiritualities. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 205.
  44. ^ Belither, James. Modern Day Kadampas: The History and Development of the New Kadampa Tradition. retrieved 2008-12-10.
  45. ^ How to Solve Our Human Problems: The Four Noble Truths, reviewed by Publishers Weekly, retrieved 2009-08-27.
  46. ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 138.
  47. ^ Batchelor, Stephen (1994). The Awakening of the West: The Encounter of Buddhism and Western Culture. Berkeley, Calif: Parallax Press. p. 203.
  48. ^ Brazier, David (2002). The New Buddhism. New York: Palgrave. p. 77.
  49. ^ Cozort, D.. quoted in Heine, S., & Prebish, C. S. (2003). Buddhism in the modern world: Adaptations of an ancient tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 235.
  50. ^ Book review Guide to Dakini Land: A Commentary to the Highest Yoga Tantra Practice of Vajrayogini, reviewed by Richard Guard. Tibetan Journal (Autumn 1991), pp. 81, 83
  51. ^ Biography Research Guide Kelsang Gyatso "http://www.123exp-biographies.com/t/00034262686/"
  52. ^ London book fair 2009
  53. ^ Spiritual Meditation "http://www.spiritualmeditation.co.uk/buddhist_books_cds.htm"
  54. ^ Karma & its Relation to Vows (Part 2 of 2, 10:54-11:09), 2006-01-16, retrieved 2010-08-16.
  55. ^ Tharpa Publications Official Website "http://www.tharpa.com
  56. ^ Kay, David (1997). The New Kadampa Tradition and the Continuity of Tibetan Buddhism in Transition, Journal of Contemporary Religion 12:3 (October 1997), p. 286.
  57. ^ Bluck, Robert (2006). British Buddhism: Teachings, Practice and Development. Routledge critical studies in Buddhism. London: Routledge. p. 151.
  58. ^ Kelsang Gyatso. (2002). Understanding the mind: Lorig, an explanation of the nature and functions of the mind. Ulverston, Eng: Tharpa Publications. pp. 161-162.
  59. ^ Kelsang Gyatso. (1992). Great Teasury of Merit: How to rely upon a Spiritual Guide. Ulverston, U.K.: Tharpa Publications. p. 31.
  60. ^ Chod in the Ganden Tradition : The Oral Instructions of Kyabje Zong Rinpoche By Kyabje Zong Rinpoche, Snow Lion Publications 2006, p. ???
  61. ^ Gyatso, Kelsang. (1999). The Ordination Handbook of the New Kadampa Tradition. p.20.
  62. ^ Gyatso, Kelsang. (2010). Sojong Ceremony. p.15.
  63. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (5:49-5:58)
  64. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (2001). Representing western Buddhism: a United Kingdom focus. quoted in Beckerlegge, G. (2001). From sacred text to internet. Religion today, v. 1. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. p. 139.
  65. ^ Wishfulfilling Jewels for Dharma Practitioners: The Benefits of the Foundation and Teacher Training Programs by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso. 1990-10-??. retrieved 2009-03-12.
  66. ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso (1992). Training as a Qualified Dharma Teacher, quoted in Religion Today: A Reader, edited by Susan Mumm, p. 43.
  67. ^ A Moral Discipline Guide: The Internal Rules of the New Kadampa Tradition — International Kadampa Buddhist Union, Section 5§2, retrieved 2010-03-10.
  68. ^ Waterhouse, Helen (2001). Representing western Buddhism: a United Kingdom focus. quoted in Beckerlegge, G. (2001). From sacred text to internet. Religion today, v. 1. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. pp. 140, 142.
  69. ^ Spanswick, Richard. (2000). The Guide: Following the Buddhist Path. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences. (9:40-9:57)
  70. ^ Kadampa Buddhist Festivals and Celebrations, retrieved 2010-03-09.

External links[edit]