Kelud

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Kelut)
Jump to: navigation, search
Kelud
Kelut.jpg
Elevation 1,731 m (5,679 ft)
Listing List of volcanoes in Indonesia
Location
Kelud is located in Java
Kelud
Kelud
East Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308Coordinates: 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Sunda Arc
Last eruption February 2014

Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is a volcano located in East Java on Java in Indonesia. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history. More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 AD.[1] It last erupted on February 13, 2014 and replaced lava dome with 400 meters diameter crater with 30 to 50 meters depth.[2]

1919 mudflow[edit]

The crater in 1919

On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as "lahars"). More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people.[3] Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built (top and bottom) on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain out to empty) the water of crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard.

1990 eruption[edit]

A strong and explosive eruption on early February 1990 produced a 7 kilometres (4 mi) high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. More than thirty people were killed. Workers continued to construct the Ampera Tunnel despite the still-hot (90–400 °C or 194–752 °F) pyroclastic flow deposits which reached as high as 25 m (82 ft) and buried the tunnel's mouth.

2007 eruption[edit]

On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption.[4]

Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, November 3, 2007. The eruption was confirmed by the Indonesian government's Centre for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation.[5][6] Although no visual confirmation was possible when the eruption began because the volcano's peak was shrouded by clouds, Indonesian government volcanologists said seismic readings showed an eruption was under way.[3][6] More than 350,000 people lived within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of the volcano. Surabaya, Indonesia's third-largest urban area and home to one of the country's busiest airports, is 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the northwest.[6] Although local inhabitants were ordered to leave their homes in mid-October, many either did not evacuate or returned in the interim.[3] Many villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the eruption.[6] But by early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption that day had not been very large at all. Seismological equipment near the volcano's crater was still operating, and scientists said that indicated a small eruption at best.[7]

However, early Sunday morning, November 4, Mount Kelud spewed ash 500 metres into the air, indicating a full eruption was taking place.[8] "The eruption isn't over," Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesian Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Agency, said. Seismologists monitoring the crater said surface temperatures in Mount Kelud's crater lake rose on November 4 to 60.7 °C (141.3 °F) from 43.9 °C (111.0 °F) on November 3. At a depth of 15 metres (49 ft), the temperature jumped to 66.1 degrees Celsius on November 4 from 45.9 degrees Celsius on November 3.[9] The extreme heat created a cloud of steam and smoke 488 metres (1,601 ft) high.[10]

On November 5, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the crater. Boiling water cascaded down the flanks of the mountain from the crater lake, and seismological equipment near the crater ceased working. Indonesian authorities said about 25,000 people remained in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders.[11]

The following day, a lava dome rose through the centre of the crater lake atop the mountain. Closed-circuit television cameras showed the 100-metre (330 ft) long oblong island had pushed about 20 metres (66 ft) above the surface of the lake. The volcano continued to emit smoke, with plumes reaching a kilometre (3,280 feet, or six-tenths of a mile) into the atmosphere.[12]

But after 48 hours of smoke and ash but no lava, Indonesian officials declared on November 8 that no eruption was immediate. Officials said the volcano was experiencing a "slow eruption" and was unlikely to explode as it had done many times in the past century.[13]

By November 12, Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake. The lava dome, which had expanded to 250 metres (270 yd) long and 120 metres (130 yards) high, cracked open and lava began oozing into the surrounding water. Smoke rose more than two kilometres (1.2 miles) into the air, and ash dusted several villages around the volcano.[13] On November 14, smoke billowed 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) into the air, and light ash covered villages 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away.[14] The hot lava dome occupied the lake crater and, consequently, the lake disappeared, but 2014 eruption replaced lava dome with a new crater, but until now there are no water on it.

2014 eruption[edit]

Ashfall in Yogyakarta from the Kelud eruption in February 2014

Kelud erupted on February 13, 2014.[15][16][17] The eruption occurred at 22:50 local time (UT+7). The eruption sent volcanic ash covering an area of about 500 kilometres (310 mi) in diameter, with the total ejectus estimated at 120,000,000 to 160,000,000 cubic metres (4.2×109 to 5.7×109 cu ft). Ashfall occurred over a large portion of Java island, from Malang to the east, as well as Central Java and Yogyakarta.[18][19][20][21] The eruption prompted about 76,000 inhabitants to evacuate from their homes.[22] Two people were reported dead after their houses collapsed from the weight of ash.[23] The ash also reportedly reached the western region of Java by February 14 afternoon, where traces of volcanic ash were found in Bandung and surroundings.[citation needed]

Ashfall from the eruption "paralyzed Java".[21] Seven airports, in Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Surabaya, Malang, Semarang, Cilacap and Bandung, were closed.[24] Financial losses from the airport closures were valued in the billions of rupiah (millions of US dollars), including an estimated 2 billion rupiah (US$ 200,000) at Juanda International Airport in Surabaya.[25] Significant damage was caused to a variety of manufacturing and agricultural industries. The ashfall meant companies such as Unilever Indonesia had difficulty distributing their products throughout affected areas. Apple orchards in Batu, East Java, posted losses of up to Rp 17.8 billion, while the dairy industry in the province posted high losses.[26]

A man sweeping ash from the road in Yogyakarta during the 2014 eruption of Kelud

In February 14, 2014, major tourist attractions in Yogyakarta and Central Java, including Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko, were closed from visitors, after severely affected by the volcanic ashfall from the eruption of Kelud volcano a day earlier, in East Java, located around 200 kilometers east from Yogyakarta. Workers covered the iconic stupas and statues of Borobudur temple to protect the structure from volcanic ashes.[27] Owing to the ash, many tourists cancelled their reservations at hotels through Central Java. Tempo reported that hotels in Yogyakarta had posted losses of Rp 22 billion (US$ 2.2 million) as more than 80 percent of reservations were canceled owing to the ash.[28]

Clean-up following the eruptions had begun by 15 February. Indonesian military personnel used water cannons to clear roads, and were later involved in reconstruction efforts in the areas surrounding Kelud.[22][29] Citizens did likewise, although with less powerful equipment.[30] Political parties vying for the April elections helped distribute food to victims of the eruptions.[22] By February 20 most businesses and attractions which had closed owing to the ashfall had reopened, although cleaning operations were still ongoing.[31]

The volcano's alert status was downgraded on 21 February, and the exclusion zone reduced from 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).[32] By early March most of the 12,304 buildings destroyed or damaged during the eruptions had been repaired, at an estimated cost of Rp 55 billion.[29]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thouret, et al., "Origin, Characteristics, and Behavior of Lahars Following the 1990 Eruption of Kelud Volcano, Eastern Java (Indonesia)," Bulletin of Volcanology, June 1998.
  2. ^ "Erupai Kelud Ciptakan Kawah Bediameter 400 Meter". March 1, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Indonesia Volcano Starts to Erupt," Associated Press, November 3, 2007.
  4. ^ Karmini, "Indonesian Volcano Threatens to Erupt," Associated Press, October 16, 2007.
  5. ^ "Mt. Kelud Starts to Erupt," Jakarta Post, November 3, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c d Retnowati, "Indonesia's Volcano Mt. Kelud Erupts - Official," Reuters, November 3, 2007.
  7. ^ Indra Harsaputra, "Scientist: Indonesian Volcano's Erupting," Associated Press, November 3, 2007.
  8. ^ "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official," Reuters, November 4, 2007.
  9. ^ Karima Anjani, "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official," Bloomberg Business News, November 4, 2007.
  10. ^ Irwan Firdaus, "Thousands Defy Indonesia Volcano Warning," Associated Press, November 4, 2007.
  11. ^ Irwan Firdaus, "Crater Temperature at Indonesia Volcano Up," Associated Press, November 5, 2007.
  12. ^ "'Island' Emerges in Indonesian Volcano Crater," Agence France-Presse, November 6, 2007.
  13. ^ a b "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Spews Ash and Lava," Agence France-Presse, November 12, 2007.
  14. ^ "Volcano Spews Lava, Red-Hot Rocks," The Independent, November 14, 2007.
  15. ^ Mount Kelud Java Island erupts.
  16. ^ Significant eruption of Kelud
  17. ^ Eruption of the Kelut volcano in Java
  18. ^ "Gunung Kelud Meletus" (in Indonesia). MetroTV News. 13 February 2014. 
  19. ^ "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Soloraya Tertutup Hujan Abu Pekat" (in Indonesia). Harian Jogja. 14 February 2014. 
  20. ^ "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Hujan Pasir Terasa Hingga Malang Blitar" (in Indonesia). Merdeka. 14 February 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Mt. Kelud eruption paralyzes Java". The Jakarta Post. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c Niniek Karmini (15 February 2014). "Cleanup begins after eruption of Indonesian volcano". CTV News. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  23. ^ "Mass evacuation in Indonesia as Java volcano erupts". BBC News. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-15. 
  24. ^ "7 Bandara Ditutup, 76.388 Jiwa Mengungsi Akibat Erupsi Kelud". February 14, 2014. 
  25. ^ "With Mount Kelud Quieter, Airports and Towns Start the Big Clean-Up". The Jakarta Globe. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  26. ^ Wahyoe Boediwardhana and Indra Harsaputra (17 February 2014). "Kelud causes billions in losses". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  27. ^ "Borobudur, Other Sites, Closed After Mount Kelud Eruption". The Jakarta Globe. February 14, 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. 
  28. ^ Muh Syaifullah (18 February 2014). "Kelud Ashes Cause Yogyakarta Tourism to Decline". Tempo. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  29. ^ a b "Buildings in Mt. Kelud shadow rise from ashes". The Jakarta Post. 9 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  30. ^ Indra Harsaputra and Bambang Muryanto (16 February 2014). "Java rebounds from eruption". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  31. ^ "Airport, temples reopen but Mt. Kelud high alert remains". The Jakarta Post. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  32. ^ Indra Harsaputra and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas (21 February 2014). "Mount Kelud’s alert status downgraded". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Brand, E.W. (1984) "Landslides in Southeast Asia: A State-of-the-Art Report." In IV International Symposium on Landslides = IV Symposium international sur les glissements de terrains. Toronto: Canadian Geotechnical Society, 1984. OCLC 77114072.
  • Van Bemmelen, R.W. The Geology of Indonesia. Vol. 1A: General Geology of Indonesia and Adjacent Archipelagoes. 2nd ed. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987. ISBN 90-247-1171-1.
  • Zen, M.T., and Hadikusumo, Djajadi. "The Future Danger of Mt. Kelut." Bulletin of Volcanology. 28:1 (December 1965).

External links[edit]

Media related to Kelud at Wikimedia Commons