Кемеровская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Economic region||West Siberian|
|Established||January 26, 1943|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Governor||Aman Tuleyev|
|- Legislature||Council of People's Deputies|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||95,500 km2 (36,900 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||28.93 /km2 (74.9 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||OMST (UTC+07:00)|
Kemerovo Oblast (Russian: Ке́меровская о́бласть, Kemerovskaya oblast), also known as Kuzbass (Кузба́сс) after the Kuznetsk Basin, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southwestern Siberia, where the West Siberian Plain meets the South Siberian mountains. The oblast, which covers an area of 95,500 square kilometers (36,900 sq mi), shares a border with Tomsk Oblast in the north, Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Altai Republic in the south, and Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai in the west. Kemerovo is the administrative center of the oblast, though Novokuznetsk is the largest city in the oblast, in terms of size. Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most urbanized regions, with over 70% of the population living in its nine principal cities. Its ethnic composition is predominantly Russian, but Ukrainians, Tatars, and Chuvash also live in the oblast. Population: 2,763,135 (2010 Census).
The climate of the oblast is continental: winters are cold and long, summers are warm, but short. The average January temperature is -17...-20°C, the average in July is +17...+18 °C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 300 mm on the plains and the foothills of up to 1,000 mm or more in mountainous areas. The duration of the frost-free period lasts 100 days in the north area up to 120 days in the south of the Kuznetsk Basin.
The oblast was established on January 26, 1943, but it has considerably older antecedents. Shors are one of the native people of the region. The oldest city in Kemerovo Oblast is Novokuznetsk, founded in 1618, soon after Cossack ataman Yermak's push into Siberia.
The territory of modern Kemerovo region has been inhabited for several thousand years ago. In 1618, in the south of the future region was founded Kuznetsk fort to protect the land from Russian and Mongolian dzhungarian invaders in 1698- Mariinsk - is the oldest settlements of the Kemerovo region. In 1721 Kuznetsk Fizzledowser Michael Volkov found on the bank of the Tom river "the burnt mountain" (burning coal seam), thus becoming a pioneer of the Kuznetsk coal.
During the 19th century, the territory of modern area was part of the Tomsk province - Kuznetsk and Mariinsky counties. During this period, there are the first industrial enterprises Tomsk ironworks, and Gavrilovsky Guriyev silver-plants, and Suharinsky Salairskii mountain mines. In connection with the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway industry got rapid development of Kuzbass.
After the October Revolution Kuzbass becomes part of the West Siberian Krai, and then the Novosibirsk Oblast. Post revolutionary period was characterized by the transition to a planned economy, the creation of the Ural-Kuzbass industrial complex development of the coal, metallurgical and chemical industries Kuzbass Kemerovo Coke built, Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine, a lot of new mines. Industrial enterprises are being built near the workers' settlements, which quickly became a city: Kiselevsk Osinniki Krasnobrodsky, Tashtagol Kaltan Mezhdurechensk and others.
During the Great Patriotic War, Kemerovo region became a major supplier of coal and metal. From Novokuznetsk steel produced over 50,000 tanks and 45,000 aircraft. In Kuzbass from the occupied areas were evacuated equipment 71 enterprises, most of which have remained in the Kuzbass.
In January 26, 1943, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issued a decree, decided to allocate from the Novosibirsk Oblast of Kuzbass and the establishment on its territory of Kemerovo region with administrative center in the city of Kemerovo. In the new Oblast included 17.5% of the Novosibirsk region, 9 of the 12 cities of regional subordination, 17 of the 20 workers' settlements, 23 of the 75 districts. The population of the Kemerovo Oblast was 42% of the total population of the Novosibirsk Oblast.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Kemerovo CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Kemerovo Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Kemerovo Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Kemerovo Oblast is one of Russia's most important industrial regions, with some of the world's largest deposits of coal. The south of the region is dominated by metallurgy and the mining industry, as well as mechanical engineering and chemical production. The Evraz Group and an ore subsidiary Evrazruda operate iron ore mining and processing facilities along with the Raspadskaya, Yuzhkuzbassugol, the Siberian holding company SIBPLAZ, coal and coking coal mines there. The northern area of the region is more agricultural. The region has a dense railway network, including the Trans-Siberian Railway, which passes through the oblast. Prokopevsk, Kiselevsk, and Andzhero-Sudzhensk are coal-producing centers, and Novokuznetsk is the center of the engineering industry.
Individual farms occupy 113,000 hectares of land. The largest crops are vegetables and potatoes, and meat and dairy products are also important. Cattle and pig farming, beekeeping, and fur farming are expanding. Wheat, barley, and oat cultivation predominates in the northern part of the region.
A network of cultural and arts institutions, including 783 libraries, 826 clubs, 3 exhibition halls, 35 museums, 137 children's music and art schools, 18 parks of culture and rest, 5 mid-level special educational institutions, and 10 theater performance schools have been established for the public.
There are more than 1,500 historical and cultural monuments in Kemerovo Region, 27 of which are of federal significance (14 archeological, 6 historical, 5 architectural, and 2 artistic monuments). The most unusual of these is the Tomsk Trivia (Tomskaya pisanitsa) monument in the village of Pisanaya, Yashkinsky District, which is considered an especially valuable site of the Russian Federation. The most important monuments of the Kuzbass include the 18th- and 19th-century historical and architectural museum at Kuznetsk Fortress in Novokuznetsk, a group of monuments and historic sites on the former Siberian Highway (Moscow-Irkutsk), and the Shestakovsky historical and cultural complex of archeological monuments and paleontological sites in Chebulinsky District.
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 37 624 (13.7 per 1000)
- Deaths: 41 417 (15.1 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.67 | 2010 - 1.62 | 2011 - 1.59 | 2012 - 1.76 | 2013 - 1.78(e)
Ethnic composition (2010):
- Russians - 93.7%
- Tatars - 1.5%
- Ukrainians - 0.8%
- Germans - 0.9%
- others - 1.5%
- 55,899 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
As of a 2012 official survey 34.1% of the population of Kemerovo Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% declares to be generically Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 3% follows Rodnovery (Slavic Paganism), 1% follows other Orthodox Churches, 1% is Muslim, 5.9% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 31% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 17% to be atheist.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kemerovo Oblast.|
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- Official website of the Administration of Kemerovo Oblast. Aman-Geldy Moldagazyyevich Tuleyev, Governor of Kemerovo Oblast
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Kemerovo Region
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- Законодательное Собрание Кемеровской области. №10-ОЗ 9 апреля 1997 г. «Устав Кемеровской области», в ред. Закона №71-ОЗ от 29 июня 2009 г. «О внесении поправок в Устав Кемеровской области». Опубликован: "Кузбасс", №102, 11 июня 1997 г. (Legislative Assembly of Kemerovo Oblast. #10-OZ April 9, 1997 Charter of Kemerovo Oblast, as amended by the Law #71-OZ of June 29, 2009 On Introducing Amendments into the Charter of Kemerovo Oblast. ).