Ken Norton

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This article is about the boxer. For his son, the American football player, see Ken Norton, Jr.. For the English cricketer, see Ken Norton (cricketer). For the college basketball coach, see Ken Norton (basketball).
Ken Norton
Kenny Norton.jpg
Statistics
Real name Kenneth Howard Norton
Nickname(s) "The Black Hercules"[1]
"The Jaw Breaker"
"The Fighting Marine"
Rated at Heavyweight
Height 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m)[2]
Reach 80 in (203 cm)
Born (1943-08-09)August 9, 1943
Jacksonville, Illinois, U.S.
Died September 18, 2013(2013-09-18) (aged 70)
Henderson, Nevada, U.S.
Boxing record
Total fights 50
Wins 42
Wins by KO 33
Losses 7
Draws 1
No contests 0

Kenneth Howard "Ken" Norton, Sr. (August 9, 1943 – September 18, 2013) was an American heavyweight boxer. He is a former WBC world heavyweight champion. Norton fought in one of the classic eras of heavyweight boxing, and competed against many of the best boxers in the division. He was known for his unconventional cross-arm style defence, which made him an awkward and frustrating opponent to face. Norton's name became household when he became the second man to defeat Muhammad Ali in 1973, and in doing so broke the champion's jaw in the process. Norton ended up fighting Ali three times, and he lost the latter two bouts. Norton is also known for his classic battle with Larry Holmes, a fight which he lost by split decision. The final round of the fight between Norton and Holmes is largely recognised as one of the greatest rounds of all time.

Norton scored several decisive victories over the course of his career, which secured his place in the history of heavyweight boxing. He holds notable wins over Muhammad Ali, Jerry Quarry, Ron Stander, Duane Bobick, Jimmy Young and Randall Cobb.

Early years[edit]

Norton was an outstanding athlete at Jacksonville High School. He was a member of the state championship football team and was selected to the all-state team on defense as a senior in 1960. His track coach entered him in eight events, and Norton placed first in seven of them. As a result, the "Ken Norton Rule," which limits participation of an athlete to a maximum of four track and field events, was instituted in Illinois high school sports. After graduating from high school, Norton went to Northeast Missouri State University (now Truman State University) on a football scholarship and studied elementary education.[3]

Boxing career[edit]

Norton started boxing when he was in the United States Marine Corps from 1963 to 1967, compiling a 24–2 record en route to three All-Marine Heavyweight titles. In time, Ken became the best boxer to ever fight for the Marines, and was awarded the North Carolina AAU Golden Gloves, International AAU and Pan American titles.[4][5] Following the National AAU finals in 1967, he turned professional.

Norton built up a steady string of wins, some against journeyman fighters and others over fringe contenders like the giant Jack O'Halloran. He was learning and improving. But he suffered a surprise defeat, ironically just after The Ring magazine had profiled him as a prospect, at the hands of Venezuelan boxer Jose Luis Garcia in 1970. It was Garcia's career peak.

Norton was given the motivational book Think and Grow Rich by Napoleon Hill,[6][7][8] which, as he states in his autobiography, Going the Distance, changed his life.[9] Upon reading it, he went on a 14-fight winning streak, including a shocking victory over Muhammad Ali in 1973 to win the North American Boxing Federation heavyweight champion title.[10][11] To quote Norton from his autobiography noted above, "These words (from Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich) were the final inspiration in my victory over Ali: Life's battles don't always go to the stronger or faster man, but sooner or later the man who wins is the man who thinks he can."[12]

An article which appeared in The Southeast Missourian[13] discussed that Norton credited Napoleon Hill's philosophy for his success. To quote from the article, "Norton says he's a believer in Napoleon Hill's philosophy, that a person can do anything he puts his mind to. 'So I train for my fights,' he says, 'mentally as well as physically. One thing I do is only watch films of the fights in which I've done well or in which my opponent has done poorly.'"

Ken Norton once said, "In boxing, and in all of life, nobody should ever stop learning!"[14]

Versus Ali, first & second fight[edit]

'Name' opponents were elusive in Norton's early career. His first big break came with a clear win over respected contender Henry Clark. This helped get him his world recognition break when Ali agreed to a match. Joe Frazier, who'd sparred with Norton, presciently said of Ali, "He'll have plenty of trouble!" Though both were top boxers in the mid 1970s, Norton and Frazier never fought each other, in part because they shared the same trainer, Eddie Futch.

On March 31, 1973, Muhammad Ali entered the ring at the San Diego Sports Arena[15] wearing a robe given to him by Elvis Presley as a 5–1 favorite versus Ken Norton in a bout televised by ABC's Wide World of Sports.[16] Norton won a 12-round split decision over Ali in his adopted hometown of San Diego to win the NABF heavyweight title.[11] In this bout, Norton broke Ali's jaw (he maintains in round eleven, though Angelo Dundee said it was earlier), leading to only the second defeat for "The Greatest" in his career. (Ali's only previous loss was to Joe Frazier, and Ali would later go on to defeat George Foreman to regain the heavyweight title in 1974.)

Almost six months later, at The Forum in Inglewood, California, on September 10, 1973, Ali avenged the Norton loss, but only just, when he got the return by a split decision.[17] Norton weighed in at 205 lbs (5 pounds lighter than his first match with Ali) and boxing scribes discussed that his preparation was too intense and that perhaps he had overtrained. There were some furious exchanges in this hard-fought battle. From Ali's point of view, a loss here would have seriously dented his claim of ever being "The Greatest."

Championship challenge against Foreman[edit]

In 1974, Norton fought George Foreman for the World Heavyweight Championship but was stopped in two rounds at Poliedro of Caracas, Venezuela. After an even first round, Foreman staggered Norton with an uppercut a minute into round two, buckling him into the ropes. Norton did not hit the canvas, but continued on wobbly legs, clearly not having recovered, and shortly he went down a further two times in quick succession, with the referee intervening and stopping the fight. This fight would became known as the "Caracas Caper".

In 1975, Norton regained the NABF heavyweight title when he impressively defeated Jerry Quarry by TKO in the fifth round. Norton then avenged his above-mentioned 1970 loss to Jose Luis Garcia by decisively knocking out Garcia in round five.

Third Ali match[edit]

On September 28, 1976, at Yankee Stadium in New York City, Norton would again fight Ali,[17] who was now the world heavyweight champion since regaining the title with an eighth-round knockout of George Foreman in 1974. Many observers have felt this was the beginning of Ali's decline as a boxer. It was a tough bruising battle for Ali. In one of the most disputed fights in history, the fight was even on the judges' scorecards going into the final round, which Ali won on both the referee's and judges' scorecards to retain the world heavyweight championship. The judges scored the bout 8–7 for Ali, and the referee scored it 8–6 for Ali. At the end of the last round, the commentator announced he would be "very surprised" if Norton has not won the fight.[18]

At the time of the third Ali-Norton bout, the last time a heavyweight champion had lost the title by decision was Max Baer to Jim Braddock 41 years earlier, and Ali-Norton III did not set a new marker. The January 1998 issue of Boxing Monthly listed Ali-Norton as the fifth most disputed title fight decision in boxing history. The unofficial UPI scorecard was 8–7 for Norton, and the unofficial AP scorecard was 9–6 for Ali.

But Ali had received a pounding. His tactics were to try to push Norton back, but they had failed. He'd refused to 'dance' until the 11th when in sheer desperation, although the crowd massively roared its appreciation. Norton has said the third fight with Ali was the last boxing match for which he was fully motivated, owing to his disappointment at having lost a fight he believed he had clearly won.

Aftermath: Norton becomes champion[edit]

1977 was a top year for Norton. He knocked out previously unbeaten top prospect Duane Bobick in one round, and after dispatching European title holder Lorenzo Zannon easily, he beat number two contender Jimmy Young (who himself had beaten George Foreman and Ron Lyle) in a 15-round split decision in a WBC big mandatory title-elimination fight, with the winner to face reigning WBC champion Ali, but Ali's camp told Ring Magazine they did not want to fight Norton for a fourth time. Both boxers fought a smart fight; however, observers thought the decision controversial.

Plans, however, changed on February 15, 1978. On that night, in front of a nationwide television audience, Ali lost his title to Leon Spinks. The WBC then ordered a match between the new champion and its number one contender, but Spinks chose instead to give the fallen champion the first shot at taking his title[19] rather than face the still dangerous Norton.[20] The WBC responded on March 18, 1978, by retroactively giving title fight status to Norton's victory over Young the year before and awarded Norton their championship, which split the heavyweight championship for the first time since Jimmy Ellis and Joe Frazier were both recognized as champions in the early 1970s.[4][21]

Larry Holmes title fight[edit]

In his first defense of the WBC title on June 9, 1978, Norton and new #1 contender Larry Holmes met in a classic fight. After 15 brutal rounds, Holmes was awarded the title via an extremely close split decision. The three judges' cards were as follows: 143–142 for Holmes, 143–142 for Holmes, and 143–142 for Norton.[22] The Associated Press scored it 143–142 for Norton.[23] The March 2001 edition of The Ring magazine listed the final round of the Holmes-Norton bout as the 7th most exciting round in boxing history. As noted above, Holmes-Norton is ranked as the 10th greatest heavyweight fight of all time by Monte D. Cox, a member of the International Boxing Research Organization (IBRO). Holmes went on to become the third-longest reigning world heavyweight champion in the history of boxing, behind Joe Louis and Wladimir Klitschko. Years later, Holmes wrote of his experience that this was his toughest match in over 70 contests.

Retirement looms[edit]

After losing to Holmes, Norton won his next fight by knockout over sixth-ranked Randy Stephens in 1978[24] before taking on Earnie Shavers in another compulsory. WBC title eliminator fight in Las Vegas on March 23, 1979. It appeared for the first time that Norton's career had perhaps hit a decline, as Shavers took the former champion out in the first round (Norton's peak was 1973–1978.)[25] Then, in his next fight, he fought to a draw with future contender Scott LeDoux at the Met Center in Minneapolis. Norton carried the day until sustaining an injury when he took a thumb in the eye in the eighth round, which immediately changed the bout. LeDoux rallied from that point and Norton became decidedly fatigued. Norton was down two times in the final round, resulting in the draw; Norton fell behind on one scorecard, kept his lead on the second, and dropped to even on the third (the unofficial AP scorecard was 5–3–2 Norton).[26]

After the fight, Norton decided that at 37 it was time to retire from boxing.[27] However, not satisfied with the way he had gone out, Norton returned to the ring to face the undefeated Randall "Tex" Cobb in Cobb's home state of Texas on November 7, 1980. In a back-and-forth fight, Norton escaped with a split decision, with referee Tony Perez and judge Chuck Hassett voting in his favor and judge Arlen Bynum giving the fight to Cobb.

The win over the title-contending Cobb gave Norton another shot at a potential title-fight, and on May 11, 1981. at Madison Square Garden he stepped into the ring with top contender Gerry Cooney, who, like Cobb, was undefeated entering the fight. Very early in the fight it became clear that Norton was no longer the caliber of fighter he once was, as Cooney's first punch caused Norton's legs to buckle. Norton continued to take shots from Cooney in his corner for nearly a full minute before Perez, who refereed his last fight, stepped in to stop the bout 54 seconds in, as Norton was slumped in his corner. Norton decided to retire following the match and turned his attention to charitable pursuits.[28] Norton's enduring legacy as a fighter is that he is considered second to Joe Frazier as Ali's main nemesis and toughest opponent. Norton fought Ali to three decisions and was never hurt or knocked down. All three bouts were close and subject to controversy. Unfortunately, Norton was less successful against three of the greatest punchers of all time, losing by KO to Foreman and Shavers and by TKO to Cooney.[29] Norton was considered past his prime in boxing from 1979 to 1981.[25]

Awards and recognitions[edit]

Ken Norton is a 1989 inductee of the World Boxing Hall of Fame, a 1992 inductee of the International Boxing Hall Of Fame,[30] a 2004 inductee into the United States Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame,[4] and a 2008 inductee into the WBC Hall of Fame.

The 1998 holiday issue of The Ring ranked Norton #22 among "The 50 Greatest Heavyweights of All Time." Norton received the Boxing Writers Association of America J. Niel trophy for "Fighter of the Year" in 1977.

Norton, a proponent of motivational author Napoleon Hill's writings [31] (e.g. Think and Grow Rich [10][32] as noted above and Success Through A Positive Mental Attitude[20] by Hill and W. Clement Stone) also received the "Napoleon Hill Award" for positive thinking in 1973.[9]

In 2001, Norton was inducted by the San Diego Hall of Champions into the Breitbard Hall of Fame honoring San Diego's finest athletes both on and off the playing surface.[33] Norton was also inducted into the Marine Corps Hall of Fame in 2004 and into the California Sports Hall of Fame in 2011.[34]

Unconventional style[edit]

Norton was a forward-pressing fighter/boxer who was notable for his unusual guard/stance characterised by arms held crosswise. The left arm low across the torso and right hand up by the right or left ear. But when under heavy pressure both arms were brought up high across at face level whilst one leant forward. This left the opponent little target in theory. The guard was also used by the legendary Archie Moore. George Foreman later used it very effectively during his famous comeback years. Tim Witherspoon was another practitioner. Joe Frazier even borrowed it for occasions in his third Ali match. The style is named the "cross-armed defense". It tends to look crablike. Norton would bob and weave from a crouch, firing well placed heavy punches. Norton was best when advancing. He'd drag or slide the right foot along from behind. By comparison, most conventional boxers have elbows in at the torso with forearms vertically parallel to each another, the gloves then being both near sides of the face. Most trainers believe the conventional style is a better defense and that the cross-arm style leaves the user open far too often.

But Norton's style was in itself fascinating. He gave Ali more trouble than anyone else in history over three contests – no small feat by any standard. He could, as they say in the trade, 'box' or 'fight'. Norton was never fazed by Ali's various famous tactics like clinching or rope-a-dope. In fact, Ali usually found rope-a-dope a particularly unpleasant experience with Norton, as Ken would get many punches through. He seemed to have a unique ability here. Then Ali's famous clinching and holding or launching sharp shots from a distance were all for various reasons not as effective as when Ali fought Frazier, the only other man he fought three times.

Angelo Dundee wrote that Ken's best punch was the left hook. Many others lauded his infamous overhand right. In a Ring Magazine article, Norton himself said that a right uppercut to Jerry Quarry was the hardest blow he recalled landing.

Unlike many boxers, Norton would often not attempt to stare down an opponent while announcements were made before the match started. Instead, he'd often look down at the floor and gather his thoughts. He was also widely noted for his fine athletic build.

Later media career[edit]

During the height of his boxing career, Norton started to appear in feature films. After two uncredited appearances in the early 1970s, he played the title characters in the 1975 film Mandingo and the 1976 film Drum. Norton played characters in nine motion pictures, and also appeared as himself in a number of documentaries and television films.

Norton additionally worked as a television and radio sports commentator and appeared in popular TV series, such as jailbird "Jackhammer" Jackson in "Pros and Cons", an early first-season episode of The A-Team (filmed 1982, broadcast 1983), and as boxer Bo Keeler in the fourth season Knight Rider episode "Redemption of a Champion" (1986). Norton also appeared on the Superstars sports competition on ABC TV (1976) and was a member of the Sports Illustrated Speakers Bureau. The character of "Apollo Creed" in Rocky was initially going to be played by Norton. However, when he pulled out, Carl Weathers was selected.

Norton continued making TV, radio and public speaking appearances until suffering injuries in a near-fatal car accident in 1986. It left him with slow and slurred speech.[35][36][32]

He appeared along with Ali, Foreman, Frazier and Holmes in a video, Champions Forever, discussing their best times, and in 2000 he published his autobiography, Going the Distance.

Family[edit]

Ken Norton was twice voted "Father of the Year" by the Los Angeles Sentinel and the Los Angeles Times in 1977.[32][37] To quote Norton from his biography, Believe: Journey From Jacksonville: "Of all the titles that I've been privileged to have, the title of 'dad' has always been the best."[32]

His son, Ken Norton Jr, played football at UCLA and had a long successful career in the NFL. In tribute to his father's boxing career, Ken Jr. would strike a boxing stance in the end zone each time he scored a defensive touchdown and throw a punching combination at the goalpost pad. He is now the linebackers' coach for the Seattle Seahawks.

Ken Norton's other son, Keith Norton, was once the weekend sports anchor for KPRC in Houston, Texas.[38]

Death[edit]

Norton died at a care facility in Las Vegas, Nevada on September 18, 2013.[39] He was 70 years old and had suffered a series of strokes in later life.[40] Across the boxing world tributes were paid, with George Foreman calling him "the fairest of them all" and Larry Holmes saying that he "will be incredibly missed in the boxing world and by many".[41]

Professional boxing record[edit]

42 Wins (33 knockouts), 7 Losses, 1 Draw [42]
Result Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
Loss 42–7–1 United States Gerry Cooney TKO 1 (10) May 11, 1981 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States
Win 42–6–1 United States Randall Cobb SD 10 Nov 7, 1980 United States HemisFair Arena, San Antonio, Texas, United States Prior the Norton-Cobb matchup, Cobb beat Earnie Shavers by TKO in 8ht on August 2, 1980. Incidentally, Ken Norton was the Color Analyst for the TV broadcast of the Cobb-Shavers fight.
Draw 41–6–1 United States Scott LeDoux PTS 10 August 19, 1979 United States Metropolitan Sports Center, Bloomington, Minnesota, United States Norton was knocked down twice in round 10.
Loss 41–6 United States Earnie Shavers KO 1 (12) March 23, 1979 United States Hilton Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 41–5 United States Randy Stephens KO 3 (10) Nov 10, 1978 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Norton hit Stephens with a good shot in the 3rd round that staggered him.
Loss 40–5 United States Larry Holmes SD 15 June 9, 1978 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Lost WBC Heavyweight title. Norton was late in his prime for his first title defense vs. Holmes, who was early in his peak.
Win 40–4 United States Jimmy Young SD 15 Nov 5, 1977 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States Eliminator for WBC Heavyweight title. Shortly after this fight, Norton was awarded the WBC title as Leon Spinks signed to fight Muhammad Ali in a rematch instead of WBC #1 ranked Norton.
Win 39–4 Italy Lorenzo Zanon KO 5 (10) September 14, 1977 United States Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 38–4 United States Duane Bobick TKO 1 (12) May 11, 1977 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States
Loss 37–4 United States Muhammad Ali UD 15 September 28, 1976 United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, United States For WBC & WBA Heavyweight titles.
Win 37–3 United States Larry Middleton TKO 10 (10) July 10, 1976 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States This fight was billed as "The Battle of the Jaw Breakers" as Middleton had broken Joe Bugner's jaw and Norton had broken Muhammed Ali's jaw.
Win 36–3 United States Ron Stander TKO 5 (12) April 30, 1976 United States Capital Centre, Landover, Maryland, United States
Win 35–3 Argentina Pedro Lovell TKO 5 (10) January 10, 1976 United States Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 34–3 Venezuela Jose Luis Garcia KO 5 (10) August 14, 1975 United States Civic Center, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States Garcia was knocked down once in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th rounds.
Win 33–3 United States Jerry Quarry TKO 5 (12) March 24, 1975 United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York, United States Won vacant NABF Heavyweight title. Title had been vacated by Muhammad Ali.
Win 32–3 United States Rico Brooks KO 1 (10) Mar 4, 1975 United States Red Carpet Inn, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
Win 31–3 United States Boone Kirkman RTD 7 (10) June 25, 1974 United States Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle, Washington, Washington, United States Kirkman was knocked down in the 7th, and did not answer the bell for the 8th round.
Loss 30–3 United States George Foreman TKO 2 (15) March 26, 1974 Venezuela El Poliedro, Caracas, Venezuela For WBC & WBA Heavyweight titles. Norton down three times. This fight would became known as the "Caracas Caper".
Loss 30–2 United States Muhammad Ali SD 12 Sep 10, 1973 United States Forum, Inglewood, California, United States Lost NABF Heavyweight title.
Win 30–1 United States Muhammad Ali SD 12 March 31, 1973 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States Won NABF Heavyweight title. Ali suffered a broken jaw during this bout. There were no knockdowns.
Win 29–1 United States Charlie Reno UD 10 December 13, 1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 28–1 United States Henry Clark KO 9 (10) November 21, 1972 United States Sahara Tahoe Hotel, Stateline, Nevada, United States
Win 27–1 United States James J. Woody TKO 8 (10) June 30, 1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 26–1 United States Herschel Jacobs UD 10 June 5, 1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 25–1 United States Jack O'Halloran UD 10 March 17, 1972 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 24–1 United States Charlie Harris KO 3 (?) February 17, 1972 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 23–1 United States James J. Woody UD 10 September 29, 1971 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 22–1 United States Chuck Haynes KO 7 (10) August 7, 1971 United States Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, United States
Win 21–1 United States Vic Brown KO 5 (10) June 12, 1971 United States Civic Auditorium, Santa Monica, California, United States
Win 20–1 United States Steve Carter TKO 3 (10) June 12, 1971 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 19–1 United States Roby Harris KO 2 (?) October 16, 1970 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Win 18–1 United States Chuck Leslie UD 10 September 26, 1970 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 17–1 United States Roy Wallace KO 4 (?) August 29, 1970 United States Coliseum, San Diego, California, United States
Loss 16–1 Venezuela Jose Luis Garcia KO 8 (10) July 2, 1970 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States Norton knocked down in 1st and 8th rounds.
Win 16–0 United States Ray Junior Ellis KO 2 (?) May 8, 1970 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 15–0 United States Bob Mashburn KO 4 (10) Apr 7, 1970 United States Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Win 14–0 United States Stamford Harris TKO 3 (10) March 13, 1970 United States Coliseum, Arena, San Diego, California, United States
Win 13–0 United States Aaron Eastling KO 2 (10) February 4, 1970 United States Coliseum, Silver Slipper, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Win 12–0 United States Julius Garcia KO 3 (10) October 21, 1969 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 11–0 United States Gary Bates KO 8 (10) July 25, 1969 United States San Diego, California, United States
Win 10–0 United States Bill McMurray TKO 7 (10) July 25, 1969 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States A cut over McMurray's left eye, ended the bout.
Win 9–0 Puerto Rico Pedro Sanchez TKO 2 (10) March 31, 1969 United States Sports Arena, San Diego, California, United States
Win 8–0 United States Wayne Kindred TKO 9 (10) February 20, 1969 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States
Win 7–0 United States Joe Hemphill TKO 3 (10) February 11, 1969 United States Valley Music Theatre, Woodland Hills, California, United States
Win 6–0 United States Cornell Nolan KO 6 (10) December 8, 1968 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, United States
Win 5–0 United States Wayne Kindred TKO 6 (10) July 23, 1968 United States Circle Arts Theater, San Diego, California, United States
Win 4–0 United States Jimmy Gilmore KO 7 (8) March 26, 1968 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States
Win 3–0 United States Harold Dutra KO 3 (6) February 6, 1968 United States Memorial Auditorium, Sacramento, California, United States Norton knocked down in the 2nd round.
Win 2–0 United States Sam Wyatt PTS 6 January 16, 1968 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States
Win 1–0 United States Grady Brazell KO 5 (6) November 14, 1967 United States Community Concourse, San Diego, California, United States

Key

  • KO – knock-out
  • PTS – decision on points
  • RTD –
  • SD – split decision
  • TKO – technical knock-out
  • UD – unanimous decision

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Beauchamp, Joseph (November 30, 2004) Rocky The Movie: The Kenny Norton Story or the Real Apollo Creed? saddoboxing.com
  2. ^ Biography. kennorton.com
  3. ^ Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. June 1973. pp. 152–. ISSN 00129011. 
  4. ^ a b c Ken Norton. MCCS Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame
  5. ^ Newman, Eric (April 25, 2013) Best Late Bloomers in Sports, 4. Ken Norton. Bleacher Report
  6. ^ Hypnotist Aided Norton – Confidence Key To Upset Of Ali, AP, April 2, 1973
  7. ^ Positive attitude key to Norton's boxing, AP, March 27, 1975
  8. ^ Think and Grow Rich. Life Training (Discusses that Ken Norton attributed his win over Muhammad Ali to the principles he learned in Think and Grow Rich.)
  9. ^ a b Norton, p. 46
  10. ^ a b Murray, Jim (August 7, 1973) Ken the conqueror. The Free Lance-Star
  11. ^ a b Johnson, R.T. (March 16, 2012) Ken Norton: The Man Who Shut Up Ali. The History Rat
  12. ^ Norton, p. 60
  13. ^ The Southeast Missourian. March 12, 1976
  14. ^ The Ring Magazine, September 1976, p. 43
  15. ^ Maffei, John (July 6, 2013). "Sports site No. 3: San Diego Sports Arena". U-T San Diego (San Diego, CA: MLIM Holdings). Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  16. ^ Today in Sports History: Elvis and Ali. Mettachronicles.com (January 2, 2013). Retrieved on June 21, 2014.
  17. ^ a b Pacquiao-Marquez III: Celebrating the trilogies (Muhammad Ali-Ken Norton). Espn.go.com (November 7, 2011). Retrieved on June 21, 2014.
  18. ^ Video on YouTube
  19. ^ Spinks Snub Miffs Norton, AP via Ludington Daily News, March 11, 1978
  20. ^ a b Anderson, Dave (March 9, 1978) No. 1 Contender – Norton only boxer behaving like a champion, N.Y. Times via Star-News
  21. ^ Norton-Young Bout May Be for the Title, The Milwaukee Journal, November 5, 1977
  22. ^ "The judges' cards for Holmes vs. Norton". boxrec.com. June 9, 1978. Retrieved March 17, 2011. 
  23. ^ Holmes get boxing title. Associated Press via The Tuscaloosa News, June 10, 1978
  24. ^ A Lesson in Manliness From the Ex-Marine: Ken Norton, The Art of Manliness, November 12, 2012
  25. ^ a b Julian Compton. boxrec.com
  26. ^ LeDoux, Norton draw, UPI Newspaper via The Bryan Times, August 20, 1979
  27. ^ Norton, p. 164
  28. ^ Grimsley, Will (November 10, 1979) Ken Norton: Now He's Fighting For Children, AP via The Evening Independent
  29. ^ The 100 Greatest Punchers of All Time! boxrec.com
  30. ^ Ken Norton. International Boxing Hall of Fame
  31. ^ Norton Has Philosophy Of Success. AP via Lewiston Morning Tribune. July 28, 1973
  32. ^ a b c d Norton, Ken; Hennessey, Donald, Jr. & Amodeo, John (2009). Believe: Journey From Jacksonville. Fairfield, IA: 1st World Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4218-9119-4. 
  33. ^ Ken Norton. San Diego Hall of Champions
  34. ^ KENNETH HOWARD NORTON – California Sports Hall of Fame 2011 Inductee. California Sports Hall of Fame
  35. ^ Roberts, Rich (December 26, 1987) Ken Norton Is Now Fighting Back: Former Champ Is Learning to Talk Again After 1986 Car Accident, Los Angeles Times
  36. ^ Rosenthal, Phil (October 4, 1986) Ken Norton Jr. helps father overcome crippling injuries, Daily News Los Angeles
  37. ^ City, Big. (June 17, 2012) Ken Norton: Two-Time Father of the Year, The Art of Manliness, June 17,2012. Community.artofmanliness.com. Retrieved on June 21, 2014.
  38. ^ Keith Norton. KPRC Houston Sports News. 2008
  39. ^ Obituary Kenneth Howard Norton Sr. Jacksonville Courier, September 24, 2012
  40. ^ "Ken Norton, heavyweight boxing legend, dies at 70". BBC. September 19, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  41. ^ Dirs, Ben (September 19, 2013). "Ken Norton was a colossal figure in heavyweight boxing's greatest era". BBC. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  42. ^ Ken Norton – Boxer. Boxrec.com (September 18, 2013). Retrieved on June 21, 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Norton, Ken; et al. (2000). Going the Distance. Champaign, IL: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-225-0. 

External links[edit]

Achievements
Preceded by
Muhammad Ali
NABF Heavyweight Champion
March 13, 1973 – September 10, 1973
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ali
Preceded by
Leon Spinks
Stripped
WBC Heavyweight Champion
March 18, 1978 – June 9, 1978
Succeeded by
Larry Holmes
Awards
Preceded by
U.S. Olympic Boxing Gold Medalists –
Sugar Ray Leonard,
Leo Randolph, Howard Davis, Jr.,
Leon Spinks and Michael Spinks
BWAA Fighter of the Year
1977
Succeeded by
Larry Holmes