Kendal

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For other uses, see Kendal (disambiguation).
Kendal
Auld Grey Town
Kendal roofscape.jpg
View over the rooftops of Kendal
Kendal is located in Cumbria
Kendal
Kendal
 Kendal shown within Cumbria
Population 28,586 (2011)
OS grid reference SD5192
   – London  223 miles (358.9 km) SSE 
Civil parish Kendal
District South Lakeland
Shire county Cumbria
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town KENDAL
Postcode district LA9
Dialling code 01539
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Westmorland and Lonsdale
List of places
UK
England
Cumbria

Coordinates: 54°19′34″N 2°44′42″W / 54.326°N 2.745°W / 54.326; -2.745

Kendal /ˈkɛndəl/, anciently known as Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England. Historically in Westmorland, it is 22 miles (35 km) north of Lancaster and 50 miles (80 km) south of Carlisle, on the River Kent, and has a total resident population of 28,586,[1] making it the third largest settlement in Cumbria, behind Carlisle and Barrow in Furness.

Kendal today is known largely as a centre for tourism, as the home of Kendal mint cake, and as a producer of pipe tobacco and tobacco snuff. Its buildings, mostly constructed with the local grey limestone, have earned it the nickname the Auld Grey Town.

History[edit]

Kendal is listed in the Domesday Book as part of Yorkshire with the name Cherchebi.[2] For many centuries it was called Kirkbie Kendal, meaning "village with a church in the valley of the River Kent". The earliest castle was a Norman motte and bailey (now located on the west side of the town) when the settlement went under the name of Kirkbie Strickland[disambiguation needed]

A chartered market town, the centre of Kendal is structured around a high street with fortified alleyways, known locally as yards, off to either side which allowed the local population to seek shelter from the Anglo-Scottish raiding parties known as the Border Reivers. The main industry in these times was the manufacture of woollen goods, the importance of which is reflected in the town's coat of arms and in its Latin motto "Pannus mihi panis", meaning wool (literally 'cloth') is my bread. "Kendal Green" was hard-wearing wool-based fabric specific to the local manufacturing process, and was supposedly sported by the Kendalian archers who were instrumental in the English victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt. Kendal Green was also worn by slaves in the Americas, and is mentioned in songs and literature from that time. Kendal Green was traditionally the colour of clothing worn by foresters and as such was mentioned by Shakespeare in Henry IV, Part 1.

The site of several (ruined) castles, the most recent one constructed in the late-12th century, Kendal Castle, has a long history as a stronghold of one kind or another. The castle is best known for being the home of the Parr family. The Parrs inherited the castle through marriage during the reign of Edward III of England. Rumours still circulate that King Henry VIII's sixth wife Catherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle, but based on the evidence available this is very unlikely. By the time Catherine was born the castle was beyond disrepair and her father was already based in Blackfriars, London, as a member of the court of King Henry VIII.[3]

Roman fort[edit]

A Roman fort existed about 2 miles south of the present day town centre, at a site known as Watercrook.[4] It was built in about 90 AD, originally as a timber structure, and then rebuilt with stone in about 130 AD during the reign of Hadrian. The fort was abandoned for about 20 years during the Antonine re-occupation of Scotland. It was then rebuilt during the reign of Marcus Aurelius and occupied until roughly 270 AD. That was probably the last time it was held for military purposes.[5] What remains of the stone structure is now buried under a field. Many of the Roman artefacts from this site may be found in the Kendal museum.

Transport[edit]

Early travellers to Kendal complained of eight miles of "nothing but a confused mixture of Rockes and Boggs."[6] Riding horseback was the fastest form of travelling for the road was "no better than the roughest fell tracks on high ground and spongy, miry tracks in the vallies." It became evident that it was unjust and beyond the power of the thinly scattered rural population thereabouts be called upon to maintain a road used for through traffic. "Whereas the road is very ruinous, and some parts thereof almost impassable and could not, by the ordinary course appointed by the Laws then in being for repairing the highways, be amended and kept in good repair, unless some further provision was made." In 1703 by Order of the Quarter Sessions of the Barony of Kendall the surveyors of highways was to make the roads good and sufficient for the passage of coaches, carts and carriages. In 1753 The Keighley and Kendal Turnpike brought the stage coach from Yorkshire to Kendal.[7]

Kendal Mint Cake[edit]

Main article: Kendal Mint Cake
Kendal mint cake with chocolate coating

Kendal is known for Kendal mint cake, a glucose-based type of confectionery reputedly discovered accidentally by Joseph Wiper during his search for a clear glacier mint.

Used on numerous expeditions to mountaintops (including Mount Everest and K2) and both poles of the Earth, its popularity is mainly due to the very astute decision of the original manufacturer's great nephew to market it as an energy food, and to supply Ernest Shackleton's 1914–17 Transarctic Expedition.

By the time the business was sold to competitor Romney's in 1987 there were several rival mint cake producers, many of which are still in business.

Tobacco and snuff[edit]

Snuff production in Kendal dates from 1792, when Kendalian Thomas Harrison returned from Glasgow, Scotland, where he had learned the art of snuff manufacture. He also brought with him 50 tons of second-hand equipment, all carried on horse back. Pipe tobacco and other tobacco products were subsequently added to the firm's production. Ownership of his firm passed eventually to his son-in-law, Samuel Gawith, whose eponymic firm, Samuel Gawith & Co., continues in business to this day. Following Samuel Gawith's death in 1865, the firm passed into the hands of his two eldest sons. During this time the business was administered initially by trustees, including Henry Hoggarth, and John Thomas Illingworth.

Illingworth left the firm in 1867 to start his own firm, which remained in business until the 1980s. The youngest son of Samuel Gawith the First subsequently teamed with Henry Hoggarth to form Gawith Hoggarth TT, Ltd. Both Samuel Gawith & Company and Gawith Hoggarth TT continue in business today in Kendal, producing snuffs and tobacco products still used around the world. Samuel Gawith and Company also hold the distinction of employing the oldest piece of industrial equipment still in production use in the world, a device manufactured in the 1750s.

Governance[edit]

Civic history[edit]

The municipal borough of Kendal was created in 1835 and until 1894 the town was also an urban sanitary district. The borough boundaries were altered in 1935 by gaining a small part of South Westmorland Rural District under a County Review Order.

The civil parishes of Kirkland and Nether Graveship were abolished in 1908 and became part of Kendal Civil Parish whose boundaries were after that the same as the borough.

Kendal was, from 1888 to 1974, the administrative centre of the administrative county of Westmorland although Appleby is the traditional county town.

The borough of Kendal was abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 to become a part of South Lakeland district of Cumbria. The town was a successor parish, and thus kept its own town council.

Parliamentary representation[edit]

Kendal is part of the Westmorland and Lonsdale parliamentary constituency of which Tim Farron is the current MP representing the Liberal Democrats.[8]

Geography[edit]

Kendal stands on the River Kent, surrounded by low hills. It is near (but not in) the Lake District National Park. When the National Park was formed in 1951 the boundary was deliberately shaped to exclude Kendal. Although a relatively small town, it is an important commercial centre for a wide area thanks to its rural location. It is affectionately referred to as "The Gateway to The Lakes".


Climate[edit]

Kendal has a marine west coast climate, category Cfb on the Köppen Climate Classification. It has moderately warm summers and mild winters, with precipitation at all times of year. In July and August the average daily maximum and minimum are 19C and 11C respectively. The corresponding averages in January and February are 6C and 1C.[9] [10]

Economy[edit]

Kendal's early prosperity was based largely on cloth manufacture. In the 19th century it became a centre for the manufacture of snuff and shoes; the K Shoes company remained a major employer in the town until its factory closed in 2003.[11] There are still a number of industries based in the town, such as Gilbert Gilkes & Gordon (manufacturers of pumps and turbines), James Cropper paper makers, based in Burneside, Mardix (switchgear), Lakeland and Heinz, who have a facility making baby milk in the north of the town. Though tourism is now one of the main employers, there is a significant IT and design sector in the town (this being non-geographic dependent) the increase of broadband availability has significantly increased this.

On 26 February 2003 Kendal was granted Fairtrade Town status.

Transport[edit]

A bridge over the old course of the Lancaster Canal, now used as a footpath

Kendal railway station is situated on the Windermere Branch Line and gives connections to Windermere railway station to the north, and Oxenholme Lake District railway station (on the West Coast Main Line) and Lancaster railway station to the south.

Kendal is around 8 miles (12 km) from the M6 motorway, and is bypassed on the west by the A591 road, linking it to Windermere, Keswick and the A590 leading to Barrow, as well as being the terminus of the A65 road to Kirkby Lonsdale, Skipton and Yorkshire and a destination on the A6 road to Penrith. Kendal is signposted off the M6 at Junctions 36 (A65, A590), Junction 37 (A684 road), Junction 38 (A685 road) and Junction 39 (A6). The three-mile £1.9m A591 bypass opened on 29 August 1971.

The Lancaster Canal was built as far as Kendal in 1819, but the northern section was rendered unnavigable by the construction of the M6. Part of this section was also drained and filled in to prevent leakage, and the course of the canal through Kendal has now been developed. The canal towpath, however, remains as a footpath through Kendal. A campaign is currently underway to restore the canal as far as Kendal.

Kendal is served by a long distance coach service from London (once per day) and local buses run from the bus station to destinations such as Ambleside, Barrow-in-Furness and Lancaster.

Education[edit]

The Queen Katherine School, on Appleby Road, is a secondary school with academy status. The school also operates a sixth form. Headmaster: Gareth Roscoe[12]

Kirkbie Kendal School, formerly known as Kendal Grammar School, is a secondary school Business and Enterprise College that serves the area around the town and rural countryside. Kirkbie Kendal School operates as a foundation school; its previous pupils include the historian David Starkey and clinical psychologist Vanessa Jones.

Kendal College is a further education college that provides further and higher education, as well as training for employers. The college is judged Outstanding by Ofsted, has over 4,000 students and employs over 150 staff.

There are numerous primary schools in the area, including Castle Park, Stramongate School, Heron Hill, Ghyllside, Vicarage Park, St Thomas's and Dean Gibson. In the nearby village of Natland, there is St Mark's School.

Places of interest[edit]

Holy Trinity Church which includes the Parr Chapel and Prayers written by the hand of Queen Catherine Parr.
Kendal Castle

Notable people[edit]

The following is a list of people who either were born in Kendal or have significant contacts with Kendal:

Kendal dialect[edit]

The Kendal dialect known as Kendalian, is a variant of the Cumbrian dialect spoken around the Kendal area.

Kendal Mountain Search and Rescue Team[edit]

Kendal has for many years maintained a voluntary mountain search and rescue team based at Busher Walk. They have performed numerous rescues around the Kendal area, and along with other local mountain rescue teams, helped at the Grayrigg derailment.

Twin towns[edit]

Kendal is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Retrieved 22 October 2011
  2. ^ Mills, A.D., Dictionary of English Place Names, Oxford University Press, 1998
  3. ^ Linda Porter. Katherine, the Queen, MacMillan, 2010. pg 21.
  4. ^ Esmonde Cleary, A., R. Warner, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 89102 (Alone?/Alauna?)". Pleiades. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  5. ^ David Shotter. "The Roman fort at Watercrook (Kendal)". 
  6. ^ Being a Relation of a Short Survey of 26 Counties, briefly describing the Citties and their Scytuations, and the Corporate Towns and Castles Herein. By a Captaine, a Lieutennt. and an Ancient, All three of the Military Company at Norwich. British Museum MSS. 34754, pp.19–20
  7. ^ Introduction To The Main Roads of Kendale British Historyac.uk. Accessed 30 September 2012
  8. ^ Tim Farron "TheyWorkForYou" listing
  9. ^ [2] ref
  10. ^ [3] ref
  11. ^ "Industries of Cumbria – Footwear". Cumbria-industries.org.uk. 2 May 2003. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  12. ^ "Meet the Head". Queen Katherine School. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  13. ^ Kendal – Castle Howe

External links[edit]