Sir Kenelm Digby (11 July 1603 – 11 June 1665) was an English courtier and diplomat. He was also a highly reputed natural philosopher, and known as a leading Roman Catholic intellectual and Blackloist. For his versatility, Anthony à Wood called him the "magazine of all arts".
Early life and career
He was born at Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire, England. He was of gentry stock, but his family's adherence to Roman Catholicism coloured his career. His father, Sir Everard, was executed in 1606 for his part in the Gunpowder Plot. Kenelm was sufficiently in favour with James I to be proposed as a member of Edmund Bolton's projected Royal Academy (with George Chapman, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson, John Selden, and Sir Henry Wotton).
He went to Gloucester Hall, Oxford in 1618, where he was taught by Thomas Allen, but left without taking a degree. In time Allen bequeathed to Digby his library, and the latter donated it to the Bodleian.
He spent three years on The Continent between 1620 and 1623, where Marie de Medici fell madly in love with him (as he later recounted). He was granted a Cambridge M.A. on the King's visit to the university in 1624. Around 1625, he married Venetia Stanley, whose wooing he cryptically described in his memoirs. He had also become a member of the Privy Council of Charles I of England. Due to his Roman Catholicism being a hindrance in the way of government office, he switched to Anglicanism.
In 1628, Digby became a privateer. On his flagship the Eagle later re-christened the Arabella: he arrived off Gibraltar 18 January and captured several Spanish and Flemish vessels. From 5 February to 27 March he remained at anchor off Algiers on account of the sickness of his men, and extracted a promise from the authorities of better treatment of the English ships. He seized a rich Dutch vessel near Majorca, and after other adventures gained a complete victory over the French and Venetian ships in the harbour of Iskanderun on 11 June. His successes, however, brought upon the English merchants the risk of reprisals, and he was urged to depart.
He returned to become a naval administrator and later Governor of Trinity House. His wife died suddenly in 1633, prompting a famous deathbed portrait by Van Dyck and a eulogy by Ben Jonson. (Digby was later Jonson's literary executor. Jonson's poem about Venetia is now partially lost, because of the loss of the center sheet of a leaf of papers which held the only copy.) Digby, stricken with grief and the object of enough suspicion for the Crown to order an autopsy (rare at the time) on Venetia's body, secluded himself in Gresham College and attempted to forget his personal woes through scientific experimentation and a return to Catholicism. At that period, public servants were often rewarded with patents of monopoly; Digby received the regional monopoly of sealing wax in Wales and the Welsh Borders. This was a guaranteed income; more speculative were the monopolies of trade with the Gulf of Guinea and with Canada. These were doubtless more difficult to police.
Catholicism and Civil War
Returning to support Charles I in his struggle to establish episcopacy in Scotland (the Bishops' Wars), he found himself increasingly unpopular with the growing Puritan party. He left England for France again in 1641. Following an incident in which he killed a French nobleman, Mont le Ros, in a duel, he returned to England via Flanders in 1642, and was jailed by the House of Commons. He was eventually released at the intervention of Anne of Austria, and went back again to France. He remained there during the remainder of the period of the English Civil War. Parliament declared his property in England forfeit.
Queen Henrietta Maria had fled England in 1644, and he became her Chancellor. He was then engaged in unsuccessful attempts to solicit support for the English monarchy from Pope Innocent X. Following the establishment of The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, who believed in freedom of conscience, Digby was received by the government as a sort of unofficial representative of English Roman Catholics, and was sent in 1655 on a mission to the Papacy to try to reach an understanding. This again proved unsuccessful.
At the Restoration, Digby found himself in favour with the new regime due to his ties with Henrietta Maria, the Queen Mother. However, he was often in trouble with Charles II, and was once even banished from Court. Nonetheless, he was generally highly regarded until his death at the age of 62 from "the stone", likely caused by kidney stones.
Character and works
Digby published a work of apologetics in 1638, A Conference with a Lady about choice of a Religion. In it he argued that the Catholic Church, possessing alone the qualifications of universality, unity of doctrine and uninterrupted apostolic succession, is the only true church, and that the intrusion of error into it is impossible.
Digby was regarded as an eccentric by contemporaries, partly because of his effusive personality, and partly because of his interests in scientific matters. Henry Stubbe called him "the very Pliny of our age for lying". He lived in a time when scientific enquiry had not settled down in any disciplined way. He spent enormous time and effort in the pursuits of astrology, and alchemy which he studied in the 1630s with Van Dyck.
Notable among his pursuits was the concept of the Powder of sympathy. This was a kind of sympathetic magic; one manufactured a powder using appropriate astrological techniques, and daubed it, not on the injured part, but on whatever had caused the injury. His book on this salve went through 29 editions. Synchronising the effects of the powder, which apparently caused a noticeable effect on the patient when applied, was actually suggested in 1687 as a means of solving the longitude problem.
In 1644 he published together two major philosophical treatises, The Nature of Bodies and On the Immortality of Reasonable Souls. The latter was translated into Latin in 1661 by John Leyburn. These Two Treatises were his major natural-philosophical works, and showed a combination of Aristotelianism and atomism.
He was in touch with the leading intellectuals of the time, and was highly regarded by them; he was a founding member of the Royal Society and a member of its governing council from 1662 to 1663. His correspondence with Fermat contains the only extant mathematical proof by Fermat, a demonstration, using his method of descent, that the area of a Pythagorean triangle cannot be a square. His Discourse Concerning the Vegetation of Plants (1661) proved controversial among the Royal Society's members. He is credited with being the first person to note the importance of "vital air," or oxygen, to the sustenance of plants.
Digby is known for the publication of a cookbook, The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Knight Opened, but it was actually published by a close servant, from his notes, in 1669, several years after his death. It is currently considered an excellent source of period recipes, particularly for beverages such as mead.
Digby is also considered the father of the modern wine bottle. During the 1630s, Digby owned a glassworks and manufactured wine bottles which were globular in shape with a high, tapered neck, a collar, and a punt. His manufacturing technique involved a coal furnace, made hotter than usual by the inclusion of a wind tunnel, and a higher ratio of sand to potash and lime than was customary. Digby's technique produced wine bottles which were stronger and more stable than most of their day, and which due to their translucent green or brown color protected the contents from light. During his exile and prison term, others claimed his technique as their own, but in 1662 Parliament recognised his claim to the invention as valid.
- A short extract from one of Digby's books on alchemy
- Medicina experimentalis Digbaeana, das ist: Außerlesene und bewährte Artzeney-Mittel : auß weiland Herrn Grafen Digby ... Manuscriptis zusammen gebracht ; übers. und an Tag gegeben . Bd. 1 - 2 . Zubrodt, Franckfurt Nunmehro ... übersehen und ... verm. 1676 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- "Kenelm Digby (DGBY624K)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- Davida Rubin, Kenneth Garth Huston. Sir Kenelm Digby, F.R.S., 1603–1665: a bibliography ... (1969), p. 2.
- Desmond M. Clarke, Descartes: A biography (2006), p. 279.
- John F. Fulton, Sir Kenelm Digby, F.R.S. (1603–1665), Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 15, (Jul. 1960), pp. 199–210.
- Richard Westfall. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England (1973), p. 142.
- Richard Westfall. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England (1973), p. 16.
- Bruce Janacek, Catholic Natural Philosophy: Alchemy and the Revivification of Sir Kenelm Digby, pp. 89–118 in Margaret J. Osler (editor), Rethinking the Scientific Revolution (2000).
- Galileo Project page
- Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (1973), p. 225.
- Andrew Pyle (editor), Dictionary of Seventeenth-Century British Philosophers (2000), article Digby, Kenelm, pp. 258–261.
- Julie Robin Solomon, Catherine Gimelli Martin (editors), Francis Bacon and the Refiguring of Early Modern Thought: Essays to Commemorate The Advancement of Learning (1605–2005) (2005), p. 196.
- The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, Vol. VIII.
- Bligh, E W: Sir Kenelm Digby and his Venetia
- Digby, Roy: Digby: The Gunpowder Plotter's Legacy ISBN 1-85756-520-7
- Eyre, Hermione: Viper Wine a novel http://www.randomhouse.co.uk/editions/viper-wine/9780224097598
- Fulton, John Farquhar: Sir Kenelm Digby; writer bibliophile & protagonist of William Harvey
- Gately, Ian: "Drink A Cultural History of Alcohol" ISBN 978-1-59240-303-5 page #137
- Longueville, Thomas The Life of Sir Kenelm Digby Longmans, Green, and Co., (1896) public domain @GoogleBooks
- Peterson, R T: Sir Kenelm Digby
- Works by Kenelm Digby at Project Gutenberg
- Digby's Observations upon Religio Medici
- The Extraordinary Streetfight of Kenelm Digby, The Association of Renaissance Martial Arts
- Mortimer Rare Book Room, Smith College
-  VIPER WINE a literary novel by Hermione Eyre about Venetia Stanley and Sir Kenelm Digby, published by Jonathan Cape
- Archival material relating to Kenelm Digby listed at the UK National Archives