Kenites or Cinites (//; Hebrew: קינים, Hebrew pronunciation: [qiˈnim]), according to the Hebrew Bible, were a nomadic clan in the ancient Levant, sent under Jethro a priest in the land of Midian. They played an important role in the history of ancient Israel. The Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers. Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, was a shepherd and a priest in the land of Midian. Judges 1:16 identifies that Moses had a father-in-law who was a Kenite, but it is not clear from the passage if this refers to the same Jethro who was the priest of Midian. Certain groups of Kenites settled among the Israelite population, including the descendants of Moses' brother-in-law, though the Kenites descended from Rechab, maintained a distinct, nomadic lifestyle for some time. Moses apparently[clarification needed] identified Jethro's concept of God, El Shaddai, with Yahweh, the Israelites' God.
According to the Kenite hypothesis, Yahweh was historically a Midian deity, and the association of Moses' father-in-law being associated with Midian reflects the historical adoption of the Midianite cult by the Hebrews.
"Kenite" is a rendition of Hebrew קֵינִי Qeyniy. According to Gesenius, the name is derived from the name Cain (קַיִן Qayin). According to A. H. Sayce, the name `Kenite', Qéní, is identical an Aramaic word meaning `a smith', which in its turn is a cognate of Hebrew Quayin, with the meaning `a lance'.
In the Bible
The Bible mentions the Kenites as living in or around Canaan as early as the time of Abraham. (Genesis 15:18-21) At the Exodus Jethro and his clan inhabited the vicinity of Mount Sinai and Horeb. (Exodus 3:1) Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, was a Kenite (Judges 1:16) resident in the land of Midian. Judges 1:16 says that his descendants "went up from the City of Palms [ie Jericho] with the men of Judah to live among the people of the Desert of Judah in the Negev near Arad."[better source needed]
However, in Exodus 3:1 Jethro is said to have been a "priest in the land of Midian" and a resident of Midian (Numbers 10:29). This has led many scholars to believe that the terms are intended (at least in parts of the Bible) to be used interchangeably, or that the Kenites formed a part of the Midianite tribal grouping. The Kenites journeyed with the Israelites to Canaan (Judges 1:16); and their encampment, apart from the latter's, was noticed by Balaam. (Numbers 24:21-22)[better source needed]
At a later period, some of the Kenites separated from their brethren in the south, and went to live in northern Canaan (Judges 4:11) where they lived in the time of King Saul. The kindness which they had shown to Israel in the wilderness was gratefully remembered. "Ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt," said Saul to them (1 Samuel 15:6); and so not only were they spared by him, but David allowed them to share in the spoil that he took from the Amalekites. (1 Samuel 30:29)[better source needed]
According to the critical interpretation of the Biblical data, the Kenites were a clan settled on the southern border of Judah, originally more advanced in arts than the Hebrews, and from whom the latter learned much. They supposedly migrated from southern Asia. In the time of David the Kenites were finally settled among the tribe of Judah.
Their eponymous ancestor may have been Cain (Kain), to whose descendants the Jahwist in Genesis iv. attributes the invention of the art of working bronze and iron, the use of instruments of music, etc. Sayce has implied that the Kenites were a tribe of smiths—a view to which Jahwist's statements would lend support. Moreover, in Jeremiah 35:7-8 the Rechabites are described as tent-dwellers with an absolute prohibition against practicing agriculture; however, other Kenites are described elsewhere as city-dwellers.
Jethro, priest of Midian, and father-in-law of Moses, according to Judges 1:16 was not a Kenite, but merely lived in the land of Cannan and the Midianites. The "Kenite hypothesis" supposes that the Hebrews have adopted the cult of Yahweh from the Midianites via the "Kenites". This view, first proposed by F. W. Ghillany, afterward independently by Cornelis Petrus Tiele (1872), and more fully by Stade, has been more completely worked out by Karl Budde; and is accepted by H. Guthe, Gerrit Wildeboer, H. P. Smith, and G. A. Barton.
- Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- "Some scholars, on the strength of Ex., xviii, go even so far as to assert that it was from Jethro that the Israelites received a great portion of their monotheistic theology." Catholic Encyclopedia
- Joseph Blenkinsopp, The Midianite-Kenite Hypothesis Revisited and the Origins of Judah, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 33(2) 131-153 (2008). doi:10.1177/0309089208099253
- Strong's Concordance #7014 #7017
- in Sayce, A. H. (1899). "Kenites". In James Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible II. p. 834.
- I Samuel 30:29; comp. ib. 27:10.
- George Aaron Barton (1859–1942), US Bible scholar and professor of Semitic languages. online
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901–1906.
- Hirsch, Emil G., Bernhard Pick and George A. Barton. "Kenites." Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906; which cites to the following bibliography:
- Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, i. 126 et seq., Berlin, 1889;
- Moore, "Judges", in International Critical Commentary, pp. 51–55, New York, 1895;
- Budde, Religion of Israel to the Exile, pp. 17–38, New York;
- Barton, Semitic Origins, pp. 271–278, ib. 1902.