Keoni Ana

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Keoni Ana
Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands and Minister of Interior
Keoni Ana.jpg
Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands
Reign June 10, 1845 – January 16, 1855
Predecessor Kaʻahumanu III
Successor Kaʻahumanu IV
Spouse Julia Alapai
Hikoni
Ulumaheihei
Issue Peter Kaʻeo (hānai)
Full name
John Kalaipaihala Young II, Keoni Ana ʻOpio
House House of Keoua
House of Keliimaikai
Father John Young
Mother Kaʻōanaʻeha
Born (1810-03-12)March 12, 1810
Kawaihae, island of Hawaii
Died July 18, 1857(1857-07-18) (aged 47)
Honolulu, Oahu
Burial Mauna ʻAla Royal Mausoleum[1]
Signature

Keoni Ana, full name John Kalaipaihala Young II (March 12, 1810 – July 18, 1857), was a politician in the Kingdom of Hawaii, serving as Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands and Minister of Interior.

Early life[edit]

Keoni Ana was born on March 12, 1810 in Kawaihae, Hawaii. He was the only son of John Young, the English sailor who became a trusted adviser to King Kamehameha I, by his second wife Kaʻōanaʻeha, the niece of Kamehameha I. He was the elder brother of Jane Lahilahi, younger brother of Fanny Kekelaokalani and Grace Kamaikui, and younger half-brother of James Kānehoa and Robert Young.[2]

He, his siblings, and Isaac Davis' children, grew up on their father's homestead granted to them by the king, overlooking the Kawaihae Bay.[3] It is now part of the Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site.

Politics[edit]

He grew up as the favorite companion of Prince Kauikeaouli, who took the throne as King Kamehameha III. The two friends relationship were severely damaged when Keoni Ana was caught in the bedroom of Queen Kalama, the King's wife, shortly after the birth of Prince Keaweaweulaokalani in 1839. The sentence of death was only avoided through the interjecture of Queen Dowager Kalākua Kaheiheimālie.[4][5]:342 It seem after the incident, Kamehameha III forgave him. Keoni Ana held several government positions, including service in the House of Nobles 1841–1856, the Privy Council 1845–1857,[6] as a Supreme Court justice, royal governor of Maui, and as chamberlain of Kamehameha III’s household. He aided in communication between native Hawaiian and foreign elements in the community.[7]

On June 10, 1845 he was appointed Kuhina Nui by Kamehameha III[3] because Victoria Kamāmalu, the designated successor of her mother, Kīnaʻu, was still a minor.[7] He succeeded Kekāuluohi as Kuhina Nui. After Keoni Ana became Kuhina Nui the Legislative Assembly passed several acts that organized the executive ministries and departments of the government. This legislation provided that the Kuhina Nui served also as Minister of the Interior. More far-reaching was the creation of the Board of Commissioners to Quiet Land Titles, which would forever change the system of land tenure in Hawaii in what would be known as the Great Mahele. Keoni Ana served on a committee to assist the king and chiefs in defining their rights and interests in the lands within the kingdom. As a very close friend and ally of the Kauikeaouli, Keoni Ana recognized that the Kuhina Nui’s authority challenged the King’s prestige and power. Keoni Ana supported Kamehameha III and IV in their attempt to abolish the office.[7]

His position as Kuhina Nui was not renewed in 1855 by Kamehameha IV who chose his sister as the new Kuhina Nui but he remained Minister of the Interior.

Marriages[edit]

Keoni Ana with his niece Emma.

He married three times, all Hawaiians of noble birth.

He married Julia Alapai, elder daughter of Nahili.[2]:39–41 Keoni Ana seemed to love Alapai the most; a portrait of the chiefess can still be seen at the Hānaiakamālama house, but they were childless. His second marriage, most likely after Alapai's passing, was to the High Chiefess Hikoni, and his third marriage was to Elizabeth Kekaaniau's first cousin, Chiefess ʻUlu-maheihei, daughter of Waipa and Kekaikuihala, daughter of Aliʻi Nuhi of Waimea, and Kaohelelani of Hana. Through these other marriage he remained childless. He adopted his nephew Peter Kaeo, son of his sister Jane. He bought Hānaiakamālama in an auction and willed it to his niece Emma Rooke who became Queen Emma and used at it as her summer palace. He died July 18, 1857 and was buried at the Royal Mausoleum at Mauna ʻAla.[1][3] His only heirs were his niece Emma and nephew Peter.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Thomas G. Thrum (1904). "Kamehameha Tomb". All about Hawaii: The recognized book of authentic information on Hawaii (Honolulu Star-Bulletin). p. 180. 
  2. ^ a b Apple, Russel A. (1978). Pahukanilua: Homestead of John Young : Kawaihae, Kohala, Island of Hawaiʻi : Historical Data Section of the Historic Structure Report. Honolulu: National Park Office, Hawaii State Office. pp. 39–41. 
  3. ^ a b c Christopher Buyers. "The Kamehameha Dynasty Genealogy (Page 5)". Retrieved October 10, 2009. 
  4. ^ P. Christiaan Klieger (1998). Moku'ula: Maui's sacred island. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 1581780028. 
  5. ^ Samuel Kamakau (1991). Ruling chiefs of Hawaii (Revised ed.). Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press. ISBN 0-87336-014-1. 
  6. ^ "Young, John (2) office record". state archives digital collections. state of Hawaii. Retrieved November 24, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Keoni Ana". Digital Archives Centennial Exhibit. Hawaii Department of Accounting and General Services. Retrieved October 13, 2009. 
Preceded by
Kaʻahumanu III
Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands
June 10, 1845 – January 16, 1855
Succeeded by
Kaʻahumanu IV